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Pathophysiology of ALL (diagram)

Pathophysiology of ALL (diagram)

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Published by Joann

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Published by: Joann on Sep 03, 2008
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02/24/2015

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Pathophysiology 
PredisposingFactors:
AgeGender RaceFamily HIstory
 
ETIOLOGY:
Unknown
Precipitating Factors:
exposure to radiationand certain chemicals
having a sibling withleukemia
HTLV-1 virus
genetic abnormalities
chromosomaltranslocations
 
Somatic mutations inthe DNAActivate oncogene/deactivate tumor-supppresor geneMalignant transformationof lymphoid stem cellsUncontrolled proliferationof lymphoblast in the bonemarrow
s/sx:
bone pain joint pain
Treatment:
AnalgesicLymphoblast replace thenormal marrow elements
DiagnosticTest:
BM aspirationBM biopsy
Treatment:
RemissionInductionTherapy
Consolidationand MaintenanceTherapy
BM
 
 
Decreased productionof normal blood cellsDecreased production of normal blood cellsLeukopenia(↓4.36 x 10
9
/L)
DiagnosticTest:
CBC
s/sx:
presence of petechiae
bruise &bleed easily
anemia
fatigue
dizziness
palpitations
Treatment:
Bloodtransfusion
Epoetin andhemapoeticstimulantsSpillage of lymphoblastinto the bloodstream
 
Organ infiltrationInfection
s/sx:
fever, chillsseizure
If not treatedIf treated:
AntibioticIgLeukapheresisSepticemia
Death
Prevention of complicationsKidneysRenal failure
s/sx:
Little/ noUO
↑RR
Flank pain
Restless
n/v
legs andfeetswellin
CNS
DiagnosticTest:
MRI
Treatment:
Intrathecalchemotherapyleukocyte cellsimpairs thecirculation of CSFleukocyte cellscompressesspinal/ cranialnerves
DiagnosticTest:
Spinal Tap
s/sx:
h/a, weakness, blurredvision, balance difficulty,vomiting, lethargy
s/sx:
↑ CSFleukocytes
s/sx:
cranial nerve palsiesconfusional statesoptic neuropathycerebellar dysfunctionpapilledemaProgress to comaLiver /Spleen
 
Extra cellscause theliver/spleento rupture
DiagnosticTest:
Ultrasonography
s/sx:
hepatomegalysplenomegalyelevated ALT(81 u/L)bleedingHypovolemic
 
s/sx:
hypotensiontachypneatachychardia

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