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Definite Integration 06.09.07 Ok

Definite Integration 06.09.07 Ok

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Published by: SB on May 03, 2011
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12/20/2012

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LOCUSLOCUSLOCUSLOCUSLOCUS
1
Maths / Definite Integration
 Definite Integration
01.
Basic Properties
02.
More Properties
03.
Integration as Limit of a Sum
CONCEPT NOCONCEPT NOCONCEPT NOCONCEPT NOCONCEPT NOTESTESTESTESTES
 
LOCUSLOCUSLOCUSLOCUSLOCUS
2
Maths / Definite Integration
 Definite Integration
As explained in the chapter titled “
Integration Basics
”, the fundamental theorem of calculus tells us that toevaluate the area under a curve
( )
 y f x
=
from
to
 x a x b
= =
, we first evaluate the anti-derivative
( ) ( )
of 
g x f x
( ) ( )
g x f x dx
=
∫ 
and then evaluate
( ) ( )
.
g b g a
That is, area under the curve
 f 
(
 x
) from
 x
=
a
to
 x
=
b
is
( ) ( ) ( )
ba
 f x dx g b g a
=
∫ 
Readers who have even the slightest doubt regarding the discussion above are advised to refer to the chapteron
Integration Basics
” before reading on.Definite integration is not all about just evaluating the anti-derivative and substituting the upper and lower limits.Working through this chapter, you will realise that a lot of techniques exist which help us in evaluating the definiteintegral without resorting to the (many times tedious) process of first determining the anti-derivative. We willdevelop all these techniques one by one from scratch, starting with some extremely basic properties in Section - 1(1)Suppose that
 f 
(
 x
) < 0 on some interval [
a
,
b
]. Then, the area under the curve
 y
=
 f 
(
 x
) from
 x
=
a
to
 x
=
b
will be negative in sign, i.e
( )
0
ba
 f x dx
<
∫ 
This is obvious once you consider how the definite integral was arrived at in the first place; as a limit of thesum of the
n
rectangles
( )
n
. Thus, if 
 f 
(
 x
) < 0 in some interval then the area of the rectangles in thatinterval will also be negative.This property means that for example, if 
 f 
(
 x
) has the following form
b A
4
 z A
3
 A
1
 y y x
Fig - 1
 A
2
a x
then
( )
1234
willequalandnot
ba
 f x dx A A A A
+
∫ 
1234
.
 A A A A
+ + +
Section - 1BASIC PROPERTIES
 
LOCUSLOCUSLOCUSLOCUSLOCUS
4
Maths / Definite Integration
If we need to evaluate
1234
 A A A A
+ + +
(the magnitude of the bounded area), we will have to calculate
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
 y x z ba x y z
 f x dx f x dx f x dx f x dx
+ + +
∫ ∫ ∫ ∫ 
From this, it should also be obvious that
( ) ( )
b ba a
 f x dx f x dx
∫ 
(2)
The area under the curve
 y
=
(
 x
) from
 x
=
a
to
 x
=
b
is equal in magnitude but opposite in sign to the areaunder the same curve from
 x
=
b
to
 x
=
a
, i.e
( ) ( )
b aa b
 f x dx f x dx
= −
∫ 
This property is obvious if you consider the Newton-Leibnitz formula. If 
( )
g x
is the anti-derivative of 
 x
(
 f 
), then
( )
ba
 f x dx
∫ 
is
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
whileis
ab
g b g a f x dx g a g b
∫ 
.
(3)
The area under the curve
 y
=
 f 
(
 x
) from
 x
=
a
to
 x
=
b
can be written as the sum of the area under the curvefrom
 x
=
a
to
 x
=
c
and from
 x
=
c
to
 x
=
b
, that is
( ) ( ) ( )
b c ba a c
 f x dx f x dx f x dx
= +
∫ 
Let us consider an example of this. Let
(,)
c a b
 y x
Fig - 2
 y = f(x)acb A
1
 A
2
It is clear that the area under the curve from
 x
=
a
to
 x
=
b
,
 A
is
 A
1
+
 A
2
.Note that
c
need not lie between
a
and
b
for this relation to hold true. Suppose that
c
>
b
.
 y x
Fig - 3
 y = f(x)acb A
1
 A

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