Welcome to Scribd. Sign in or start your free trial to enjoy unlimited e-books, audiobooks & documents.Find out more
Download
Standard view
Full view
of .
Look up keyword
Like this
8Activity
0 of .
Results for:
No results containing your search query
P. 1
Palatine Rugae and Their Significance in Clinical Dentistry

Palatine Rugae and Their Significance in Clinical Dentistry

Ratings: (0)|Views: 1,890|Likes:

More info:

Published by: Virtualdental Mexico on May 03, 2011
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

03/31/2013

pdf

text

original

 
2008;139;1471-1478
 J Am Dent Assoc
Ashith B. AcharyaManashvini S. Patil, Sanjayagouda B. Patil and
Clinical Dentistry: A Review of the LiteraturePalatine Rugae and Their Significance in
 jada.ada.org ( this information is current as of May 2, 2011):The following resources related to this article are available online at
http://jada.ada.org/content/139/11/1471
in the online version of this article at:including high-resolution figures, can be found
Updated information and services
http://jada.ada.org/content/139/11/1471/#BIBL, 4 of which can be accessed free:
56 articles
This article cites
http://www.ada.org/prof/resources/pubs/jada/permissions.asp
this article in whole or in part can be found at:of this article or about permission to reproduce
reprints
Information about obtaining© 2011 American Dental Association. The sponsor and its products are not endorsed by the ADA.
 onM a  y , 0 
D o wnl   o a  d  e  d f   om
 
F
or centuries, anatomistshave shown interest in theevolutionary developmentof the folds of tissue foundin the roof of the humanmouth—the palatine rugae.
1
Theearliest references to the palatinerugae are found in various booksabout general anatomy. Winslow
2
seems to have been the first todescribe them, and the earliestillustration of them probably is bySantorini,
3
a drawing depictingthree continuous wavy lines thatcross the midline of the palate.The palatine rugae are ridges sit-uated in the anterior part of thepalatal mucosa on each side of themedial palatal raphae and behindthe incisive papilla (IP). At birth,the palatine rugae are well-formed,and the pattern of orientation typ-ical for the person is present.
4
Palatine rugae can be used asinternal dental-cast reference pointsfor quantification of tooth migrationin cases of orthodontic treatment.
5
For patients who experience diffi-culty with their speech patternswhen acclimating to a new pros-thesis, the texture of the rugae inthe palatal region of the denturemay prove helpful.
6
When traffic accidents, acts of 
Dr. M.S. Patil is an assistant professor, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology, MahatmaGandhi Dental College and Hospital, RIICO Institutional Area, Sitapura, Jaipur-302022, Rajasthan,India, e-mail “sbpatilmanu@gmail.com“. Address reprint requests to Dr. M.S. Patil.Dr. S.B. Patil is an associate professor, Department of Prosthodontics, Mahatma Gandhi DentalCollege and Hospital, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India.Dr. Acharya is a lecturer, Department of Forensic Odontology, SDM College of Dental Sciences andHospital, Dharwad, Karnataka, India.
Palatine rugae and their significancein clinical dentistry
A review of the literature
Manashvini S. Patil, MDS; Sanjayagouda B. Patil, MDS, MFDS-RCPSG-UK; Ashith B. Acharya, BDS
CLINICAL PRACTICE
CRITICAL REVIEW
JADA, Vol. 139 http://jada.ada.org November 2008
 1471
Background.
The palatine rugae haveinterested dentists not only because of their typicalpattern of orientation but also because of their use-fulness as a reference landmark in various dentaltreatment modalities. The pattern of orientation isformed by the 12th to 14th week of prenatal life and remains stable untilthe oral mucosa degenerates after death. The palatine rugae possessunique characteristics that could be used in circumstances in whichit is difficult to identify a dead person according to fingerprints ordental records.
Types of Studies Reviewed.
The authors reviewed the literatureby using key words regarding the anatomy, development, classification,clinical significance and forensic aspects of palatine rugae.
Conclusion and Clinical Implications.
Palatine rugae are per-manent and unique to each person, and clinicians and scientists can usethem to establish identity through discrimination. If particular rugaepatterns could be established for different ethnic groups, they wouldassist the forensic odontologist in the identification of a person. Becausethey are a stable landmark, the palatine rugae also can play a significantrole in clinical dentistry.
Key Words.
Palatine rugae; forensic dentistry; dental prosthesis;dental arch; cleft palate; orthodontic tooth movement.
 JADA 2008;139(11):1471-1478.
ABSTRACT
A  
T  
C
 L
  E
2
 J
A
C    
O   
N   
T    
I    
N  
U  
I  
G
E
 D
  U
  C
  A
    T
      I
   O
    N
®
Copyright © 2008 American Dental Association. All rights reserved. Reprinted by permission
 onM a  y , 0 
D o wnl   o a  d  e  d f   om
 
terrorism or mass disasters occur in which it isdifficult to identify a person according to finger-prints or dental records, palatine rugae may bean alternative method of identification.
7
The pala-tine rugae are permanent and unique to eachperson and can establish identity through dis-crimination(via casts, tracings or digitized rugaepatterns).
8,9
 As early as 1955, Lysell
10
suggested that thepalatine rugae might possess unique characteris-tics that could be used in paternity identification.However, to date, the study of palatine rugae hasnot been extensive. The purpose of this article isto review the literature concerning palatine rugaeand discuss their significance to the dentalprofession.
LITERATURE REVIEW 
Carrea
11
indicated that a rugae pattern is formedby the 12th to 14th week of prenatal life, and itremains stable throughout the person’s life.Lund
12
observed that a connective tissue core isembedded deeply between the submucosal fattytissue and the stratum reticulum of the palate.This core represents a foundation over which thesubstance of the rugae builds to become a foldlikeprojection in the roof of the mouth. With theincrease in size of the anterior part of the palatein the early years of life, the length of the rugaeand the distance between them increase. The pat-tern of orientation of the rugae becomes clearerand remains unchanged throughout life.
13
The number of rugae on each side of the palatevaries between three and five. The palatine rugaedo not extend posteriorly beyond the anterior half of the hard palate, and they never cross the mid-line. The anterior rugae usually are more promi-nent than the posterior rugae (Figure 1). Two-thirds of the rugae are curved, and the rest areangular. The last rugae frequently are divided;the medial and lateral parts are not connectedand do not continue in their axial orientation.Fragmentary rugae frequently are present, par-ticularly in the posterior half of the rugae terri-tory. The shape, length, width, prominence,number and orientation of palatine rugae varyconsiderably among people.Variation also exists,although to a lesser extent, in the left and rightsides of the same person. The inclination of therugae to the sagittal plane can differ markedlybetween both sides. In general, no bilateral sym-metry exists in the rugae pattern.
14
Lebret
15
used a symmetrograph to recordgrowth-related changes in the shape of the palatewith regard to alterations in the midsagittal andtransverse contours. Lysell
10
recorded an increasein primary ruga length (from 5 to 10 years of age)of 11 percent for boys and 9 percent for girls. vander Linden,
16
in his longitudinal study of childrenaged 6 to 16 years based on 80 series of dentalcasts collected yearly, reported that a more or lesscontinuous and small increase occurred in the dis-tances between the medial borders of pairedrugae. The same was true for the length of thethree large paired rugae, with the exception beingthat after age 10 years, the anterior pair of rugaeno longer increased in length.Friel
17
demonstrated in a study that the teethmove forward in relation to the rugae in conjunc-tion with growth of the jaws. He showed that theposterior boundary of the rugae in relation tothe teeth tends to extend backward until age20 years.
CLASSIFICATION OF PALATINE RUGAE
The first system of classification, to our knowl-edge, was developed by Goria
18
in 1911 and wasrudimentary. The rugae pattern was categorizedin two ways: specifying the number of rugae andspecifying the extent of the rugal zone relative tothe teeth.In this system, compound rugae of two or morebranches were counted as one, whether they were V- or Y-shaped. Goria further distinguished twotypes: simple or primitive and more developed.Lysell’s
10
classification in 1955 is the mostimportant, and it has been used widely inresearch involving rugae. It is comprehensive andincludes the IP. Rugae are measured in a straightline between the origin and termination and aregrouped into three categories:
d
primary: 5 millimeters or more;
d
secondary: 3 to 5 mm;
d
fragmentary: 2 to 3 mm.Rugae smaller than 2 mm are disregarded.The rugae on both sides of the palate are num-bered separately from anterior to posterior and
CLINICAL PRACTICE
CRITICAL REVIEW
 1472
JADA, Vol. 139http://jada.ada.org November 2008
ABBREVIATION KEY.
 AP:
 Anterior-most point.
IP:
Incisive papilla.
MPE:
Mesiopalatal cusp of secondprimary molar.
MP6:
Mesiopalatal cusp of first perma-nent molar.
MRE:
Median palatal raphae in relation tosecond primary molar.
MR6:
Median palatal raphae inrelation to first permanent molar.
PBA:
Posteriorborder of last ruga.
PB3:
Posterior border of last pri-mary or secondary ruga.
3-D:
Three-dimensional.
Coriht©2008AmericanDentalAssociation.Allrihtsreserved.Rerintedbermission
  onM a  y , 0 
D o wnl   o a  d  e  d f   om

Activity (8)

You've already reviewed this. Edit your review.
1 hundred reads
1 thousand reads
Raghu Raghavendra added this note
good article
Marta Flores liked this
rekabi liked this
Muhammad Uzair liked this
Nikhil Jonwal liked this

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
scribd
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->