12 Electronic Journal of Theoretical Physics
, No. 16(II) (2007) 11–96
Firstly, many complex physical and chemical phenomena can mimic prints of life so closelythat special methods are required to make the distinction. Secondly, extraterrestrial life,in principle, can be composed of components which are fundamentally diﬀerent fromthose known on Earth. Therefore, the main objective of this paper is to formulate someinvariants of life in terms of phenomenology of behavior.Modeling of life can be performed on many diﬀerent levels of description. While thereis no universal agreement on the deﬁnition of life, scientists generally accept that thebiological manifestation of life exhibits the following phenomena (Wikipedia):
- Living things are composed of one or more cells, which are the basic unitsof life.
- Metabolism produces energy by converting nonliving materialinto cellular components (synthesis) and decomposing organic matter (catalysis). Livingthings require energy to maintain internal organization (homeostasis) and to produce theother phenomena associated with life.
- Growth results from a higher rate of synthesis than catalysis. A growing organism increases in size in all of its parts, ratherthan simply accumulating matter. The particular species begins to multiply and expandas the evolution continues to ﬂourish.
- Adaptation is the accommodationof a living organism to its environment. It is fundamental to the process of evolution andis determined by the organism’s heredity as well as the composition of metabolized sub-stances, and external factors present.
Response to stimuli
- A response can take manyforms, from the contraction of a unicellular organism when touched to complex reactionsinvolving all the senses of higher animals. A response is often expressed by motion: theleaves of a plant turning toward the sun or an animal chasing its prey.
- The division of one cell to form two new cells is reproduction. Usually the term isapplied to the production of a new individual (asexually, from a single parent organism,or sexually, from at least two diﬀering parent organisms), although strictly speaking italso describes the production of new cells in the process of growth.In this paper, we will address only one aspect of Life: a
invariants of Life, and in particular, the
geometry and kinematics of behavior
of Livings disregarding other aspects of Life. By narrowing the problem in this way, wewill be able to extend the mathematical formalism of physics’ First Principles to includedescription of behavior of Livings. In order to illustrate the last statement, consider thefollowing situation. Suppose that we are
trajectories of several particles: someor them physical (for instance, performing a Brownian motion), and others are biological(for instance, bacteria), Figure 1. Is it possible, based only upon the
of theobserved trajectories, to ﬁnd out which particle is alive? The test for the proposed modelis to produce the correct answer.Thus, the objective of this paper is to introduce a dynamical formalism describingthe
of Livings. All the previous attempts to develop models for so called ac-tive systems (i.e., systems that possess certain degree of autonomy from the environmentthat allows them to perform motions that are not directly controlled from outside) havebeen based upon the principles of Newtonian and statistical mechanics, (A. S. Mikhailov,1990). These models appear to be so general that they predict not only physical, but also