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Nature Nurture Debate on Human Sexual Orientation

Nature Nurture Debate on Human Sexual Orientation

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Published by Kevin Brewer
A description of different theories in psychology within the nature-nurture debate as applied to human sexual orientation
A description of different theories in psychology within the nature-nurture debate as applied to human sexual orientation

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Published by: Kevin Brewer on May 03, 2011
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02/08/2013

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THE NATURE-NURTUREDEBATE ON HUMANSEXUAL ORIENTATION
Kevin Brewer
ANSWERS IN PSYCHOLOGY NO.3
ISBN: 978-1-904542-23-0PUBLISHED BYOrsett Psychological Services,PO Box 179,Grays,EssexRM16 3EWUKCOPYRIGHTKevin Brewer 2006COPYRIGHT NOTICEAll rights reserved. Apart from any use for thepurposes of research or private study, or criticism orreview, this publication may not be reproduced, stored ortransmitted in any form or by any means, without priorpermission in writing of the publishers. In the case ofreprographic reproduction only in accordance with theterms of the licences issued by the Copyright LicensingAgency in the UK, or in accordance with the terms oflicences issued by the appropriate organization outsidethe UK.
 
The Nature-Nurture Debate on Human Sexual Orientation; Kevin Brewer; 2006Answers in Psychology No.3; ISBN: 978-1-904542-23-0 2
Contents
Page NumberINTRODUCTION 3Terminology 3Defining Sexual Orientation 6Nature and Nurture 7NATURE SIDE 8Evolution 9Sex Chromosomes 13Specific Gene(s) 14Hormones 16Instinctive Learning or Imprinting 19Structures in the Brain 21Evaluation of Nature Side 23NURTURE SIDE 25Gender Atypical and Non-ConformingBehaviour 25Learning 27Family Dynamics 29Psychodynamics 32Social Construction of Sexual Identity 34Evaluation of Nurture Side 43CONCLUSIONS 44FOOTNOTES 46REFERENCES 48APPENDIX 1: BISEXUALITY 55APPENDIX 2: CELIBACY 57
 
The Nature-Nurture Debate on Human Sexual Orientation; Kevin Brewer; 2006Answers in Psychology No.3; ISBN: 978-1-904542-23-0 3
Introduction
SEXGENDERSEXUALITYSEXUAL ORIENTATIONSexual orientation and behaviour seem to be coreparts of an individual. Today, in Western society, itmanifests itself in diverse ways, but at the same time intraditional ways:
Sexual diversity has been a familiar fact of lifethroughout recorded history.. In the industrialisedNorth for the past several centuries the main focusfor regulating and controlling it has been throughfashioning a sharp divide between heterosexual("normal") and homosexual ("abnormal", "perverted","deviant") patterns (Weeks 2001 p5).
Heterosexuality is the behaviour of the vastmajority (or so it seems). But how many people are in thehomosexual minority depends on the definition used. It isestimated that around 2% of women and 4% of men worldwidelive exclusively as homosexuals (MacKay 2000).The accuracy of this figure is open to question, andis larger including individuals who hide theirhomosexuality or who are not exclusive in that sexualpreference.Kinsey et al's (1948) classic study of white USmales found that 37% admitted to some homosexualexperience (to the point of orgasm) in adolescence oradulthood. Reanalysis of a sub-sample of this data, byGagnon and Simon (1973), to include experiences after theage of fifteen years only, produced a figure of around15%. While any homosexual experience by age forty-fivefor women was reported at 20% (Kinsey et al 1953).Mosher et al (2005 quoted in LeVay and Valente2006), using modern sampling techniques with the NationalHealth Statistics Center (NHSC) survey in the US, foundthat only 1.5% of men and 0.7% of women were exclusivelyattracted to the same sex. This research may be moreaccurate because it was a self-administered computer-based survey.
TERMINOLOGY
It is always important to clarify the terms involved

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