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Question and Answers on Steam Turbines.

Question and Answers on Steam Turbines.

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Published by: malajoshi_baroda on May 03, 2011
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 Question & Answers on Steam Turbines 
1. What is a stage in a steam turbine?Answer:
In an impulse turbine, the stage is a set of moving blades behind the nozzle. In areaction turbine, each row of blades is called a "stage." A single Curtis stage mayconsist of two or more rows of moving blades.
2. What is a diaphragm?Answer:
Partitions between pressure stages in a turbine's casing are called diaphragms.They hold the vane-shaped nozzles and seals between the stages. Usuallylabyrinth-type seals are used. One-half of the diaphragm is fitted into the top of the casing, the other half into the bottom.
3. What is a radial-flow turbine?Answer:
In a radial-flow turbine, steam flows outward from the shaft to the casing. Theunit is usually a reaction unit, having both fixed and moving blades. They areused for special jobs and are more common to European manufacturers, such asSta-Laval (now ABB).
4. What are four types of turbine seals?Answers:
1. Carbon rings fitted in segments around the shaft and held together bygarter or retainer springs.2. Labyrinth mated with shaft serration¶s or shaft seal strips.
. Water seals where a shaft runner acts as a pump to create a ring of water around the shaft. Use only treated water to avoid shaft pitting.4. Stuffing box using woven or soft packing rings that are compressed with agland to prevent leakage along the shaft.
. In which turbine is tip leakage a problem?Answer:
Tip leakage is a problem in reaction turbines. Here, each vane forms a nozzle;steam must flow through the moving nozzle to the fixed nozzle. Steam escapingacross the tips of the blades represents a loss of work. Therefore, tip seals areused prevent this.
6. What are two types of clearance in a turbine?Answer:
- clearance at the tips of the rotor and casing.
- the fore-and-aft clearance, at the sides of the rotor and the casing.
7. What are four types of thrust hearings?Answer:
1. Babbitt-faced collar bearings.2. Tilting pivotal pads.
. Tapered land bearings.4. Rolling-contact (roller or ball) bearings.
8. What is the function of a thrust bearing?Answer:
Thrust bearings keep the rotor in its correct axial position.
9. What is a balance piston?Answer:
Reaction turbines have axial thrust because pressure on the entering side isgreater than pressure on the leaving side of each stage. To counteract this force,steam is admitted to a dummy (balance) piston chamber at the low-pressure endof the rotor. Some designers also use a balance piston on impulse turbines thathave a high thrust. Instead of piston, seal strips are also used to duplicate apiston's counter force.
10. Why should a steam or moisture separator be installed in thesteam line next to a steam turbine?Answer:
 All multistage turbines, low-pressure turbines, and turbines operating at highpressure with saturated steam should have a moisture separator in order toprevent rapid blade wear from water erosion.
11. What are some conditions that may prevent a turbine fromdeveloping full power?Answers:
1. The machine is overloaded.2. The initial steam pressure and temperature are not up to designconditions.
. The exhaust pressure is too high.4. The governor is set too low.5. The steam strainer is clogged.6. Turbine nozzles are clogged with deposits.7. Internal wear on nozzles and blades.
12. Why is it necessary to open casing drains and drains on thesteam line going to the turbine when a turbine is to be started?Answers:
To avoid slugging nozzles and blades inside the turbine with condensate onstart-up; this can break these components from impact. The blades weredesigned to handle steam, not water.
13. What is steam rate as applied to turbo-generators?Answer:
The steam rate is the pounds of steam that must be supplied per kilowatt-hour of generator output at the steam turbine inlet.
14. What are the two basic types of steam turbines?Answers:
1. Impulse type.2. Reaction type.
. What is the operating principle of an impulse turbine?

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