. Water seals where a shaft runner acts as a pump to create a ring of water around the shaft. Use only treated water to avoid shaft pitting.4. Stuffing box using woven or soft packing rings that are compressed with agland to prevent leakage along the shaft.
. In which turbine is tip leakage a problem?Answer:
Tip leakage is a problem in reaction turbines. Here, each vane forms a nozzle;steam must flow through the moving nozzle to the fixed nozzle. Steam escapingacross the tips of the blades represents a loss of work. Therefore, tip seals areused prevent this.
6. What are two types of clearance in a turbine?Answer:
- clearance at the tips of the rotor and casing.
- the fore-and-aft clearance, at the sides of the rotor and the casing.
7. What are four types of thrust hearings?Answer:
1. Babbitt-faced collar bearings.2. Tilting pivotal pads.
. Tapered land bearings.4. Rolling-contact (roller or ball) bearings.
8. What is the function of a thrust bearing?Answer:
Thrust bearings keep the rotor in its correct axial position.
9. What is a balance piston?Answer:
Reaction turbines have axial thrust because pressure on the entering side isgreater than pressure on the leaving side of each stage. To counteract this force,steam is admitted to a dummy (balance) piston chamber at the low-pressure endof the rotor. Some designers also use a balance piston on impulse turbines thathave a high thrust. Instead of piston, seal strips are also used to duplicate apiston's counter force.