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5.Routing With a Distance Vector Protocol

5.Routing With a Distance Vector Protocol

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Published by: onlycisco.tk on May 03, 2011
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5.Routing with a Distance Vector Protocol
Choosing the right physical topology allows a company to expand its networked serviceswithout losing reliability and efficiency. Network designers base their topology decisions uponthe enterprise requirements for performance and reliability. The star and mesh topologies arenormally deployed in enterprise environments.
Star Topology.
One popular physical topology is the star. The center of the star corresponds tothe top of the hierarchy, which could be the corporate headquarters or head office. Branchoffices at multiple locations connect to the center, or hub, of the star.A star topology providescentralized control of the network. All crucial services and technical staff can be located in oneplace. Star topologies are scalable. Adding a new branch office simply requires one moreconnection to the central point of the star. If an office adds several branches to its territory,each branch office can connect to a center hub in its own area, which then connects back to themain central point at the central office. In this way, a simple star can grow into an extendedstar, with smaller stars radiating out from the main branch offices.The star and extended startopologies create a single point of failure. Mesh topologies eliminate this problem.
Mesh Topologies.
Each additional link provides an alternate pathway for data and addsreliability to the network. With the addition of links, the topology becomes a mesh ointerconnected nodes. Each additional link adds cost and overhead. It also adds to thecomplexity of managing the network.
Partial Mesh.
Adding redundant links only to a specific area of an enterprise creates a partialmesh. This topology meets uptime and reliability requirements for critical areas like serverfarms and SANs, while minimizing additional expenses. The other areas of the network are stillvulnerable to failures. Therefore, it is essential to place the mesh where it provides the mostbenefit.
Full Mesh.
When no downtime is acceptable, the network requires a full mesh. Each node in afull mesh topology connects to every other node in the enterprise. This is the most failure-proof topology, but it is also the most expensive to implement.The Internet is an excellent example of a meshed network. Devices on the Internet are notunder the control of any one individual or organization. As a result, the topology of the Internetis constantly changing, with some links going down and others coming online. Redundantconnections balance the traffic and ensure that there is a reliable path to thedestination.Enterprise networks face some of the same issues as the Internet. Therefore,processes are put in place that allow devices to adapt to these constantly changing conditionsand reroute traffic as appropriate.
Static and Dynamic Routing
The physical topology of an enterprise network provides the structure for forwarding data.Routing provides the mechanism that makes it work. Finding the best path to the destinationbecomes very difficult in an enterprise network, because a router can have many sources of information from which to build its
routing table
. A routing table is a data file that exists in RAMand stores information about directly connected and remote networks. The routing tableassociates each network with either an
exit interface
or a
next hop
.The exit interface is the physical path that the router uses to move the data closer to thedestination. The next hop is an interface on a connected router that moves the data closer tothe final destination. The table also attaches a number to each route that represents thetrustworthiness or accuracy of the source of the routing information. This value is the
administrative distance
. Routers maintain information about directly connected, static, anddynamic routes.
Directly Connected Routes
 A directly connected network attaches to a router interface. Configuring the interface with anIP address and subnet mask allows the interface to become a host on the attached network.The network address and subnet mask of the interface, along with the interface type andnumber, appear in the routing table as a directly connected network. The routing tabledesignates directly connected networks with a C.
Static Routes
Static routes are routes that a network administrator manually configures. A static routeincludes the network address and subnet mask of the destination network, along with the exitinterface or the IP address of the next hop router. The routing table designates static routeswith an S. Static routes have the lowest administrative distance, because static routes are morestable and reliable than routes learned dynamically.
Dynamic Routes
 Dynamic routing protocols also add remote networks to the routing table. Dynamic routingprotocols enable routers to share information about the reachability and status of remotenetworks through network discovery. Each protocol sends and receives data packets whilelocating other routers and updating and maintaining routing tables. Routes learned through adynamic routing protocol are identified by the protocol used. For example, R for RIP and D forEIGRP. They are assigned the administrative distance of the protocol.Typically, both static and dynamic routes are employed in an enterprise network. Static routingaddresses specific network needs. Depending on the physical topology, a static route can beused to control the traffic flow.Limiting traffic to a single point of entrance/exit creates a stub network. In some enterprisenetworks, small branch offices have only one possible path to reach the rest of the network. Inthis situation, It is not necessary to burden the stub router with routing updates and increasedoverhead by running a dynamic routing protocol, therefore static routing is beneficial

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