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07/09/2013

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Material Science

Prof. Satish V. Kailas

Associate Professor Dept. of Mechanical Engineering,Indian Institute of Science,Bangalore – 560012India

Chapter 3. Imperfections in Solids

3.1

Theoretical yield strength, Point defects, Line defects and Dislocations

3.1.1 Theoretical strength

Atoms are orderly arranged without any disruptions in ideal solids. Under mechanicalloads, all solids tend to reshape themselves. This occurs usually by process called slip,the translation of one plane of atoms over another under implied shear stresses.Consider two planes of atoms subjected a shear stress under applied load. Let’s assume,as shown in

figure-3.1

, distance between atoms in slip direction is

b

, and spacing betweenthe two planes is

a

.

Figure-3.1:

Shear displacement of atom planes and variation of shear stress.

The shear stress is zero initially and also once planes moved one identity distance,

b

. In between, it can be said that shear stress is a periodic function of displacement as each

atom is attracted toward the nearest atom of the other row. Thus the relation of shear stress with displacement can be expressed as follows:

b x

m

Π=

2sin

τ τ

where is the amplitude of sine wave, and b is the period. For small values of x/b, after simplification,

b x

m

Π≈

2

τ τ

It is safe to approximate at small values of displacement Hooke’s law is applicable. Thus,

aGxG

==

γ τ

Combing the above two equations, maximum shear stress at which slip should occur is

abG

m

Π=

2

τ

If it is assumed as

b

≈

a

, approximate value of shear stress needed for initiation of slip is

Π=

2

G

m

τ

Shear modulus, G, of solids is in the range of 20-150 GPa, and thus theoretical shear strength could be in range 3-30 GPa. However, actual values of the shear stress requiredfor plastic deformation is only about 0.5-10 MPa i.e. about 100 times less than thetheoretical value. Because of this discrepancy, it must be said that a mechanism other than shearing of planes must be operative under application of loads thus causing plasticdeformation.

3.1.2 Point defects

Defects exists any all solid materials. For ease of their characterization, defects areclassified on the basis of their geometry, which is realistic as defects are disrupted regionin a volume of a solid. Defects are:a.

Point defects (zero-dimensional) b.

Line defects (single dimensional)c.

Surface defects (two dimensional)d.

Volume defects (three dimensional)

Point defects, as the name implies, are imperfect point-like regions in the crystal. Typicalsize of a point defect is about 1-2 atomic diameters. Different point defects are explainedin the following paragraphs.

Figure-3.2

depicts various point defects.A

vacancy

is a vacant lattice position from where the atom is missing. It is usuallycreated when the solid is formed by cooling the liquid. There are other ways of making avacancy, but they also occur naturally as a result of thermal excitation, and these arethermodynamically stable at temperatures greater than zero. At equilibrium, the fractionof lattice sites that are vacant at a given temperature (

T

) are:

kT Q

e N n

−

=

where

n

is the number of vacant sites in

N

lattice positions,

k

is gas or Boltzmann’sconstant,

T

is absolute temperature in kelvins, and

Q

is the energy required to move anatom from the interior of a crystal to its surface. It is clear from the equation that there isan exponential increase in number of vacancies with temperature. When the density of vacancies becomes relatively large, there is a possibility for them to cluster together andform voids.Figur-3.2: Schematic depiction of various point defectsAn

interstitial

atom

or

interstitialcy

is an atom that occupies a place outside the normallattice position. It may be the same type of atom as the rest surrounding it (self interstitial)

or

a foreign impurity atom. Interstitialcy is most probable if the atomic packing factor is low.Another way an impurity atom can be fitted into a crystal lattice is by substitution. A

substitutional atom

is a foreign atom occupying original lattice position by displacing the parent atom.In the case of vacancies and foreign atoms (both interstitial and substitutional), there is achange in the coordination of atoms around the defect. This means that the forces are not balanced in the same way as for other atoms in the solid, which results in latticedistortion around the defect.

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