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Steam Turbine Part-i Seme2 2006

# Steam Turbine Part-i Seme2 2006

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05/04/2011

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Ref. No.- EX/ML 32C/69/2006
B.M.E. Part-I Examination, 2006
(Second Semester)
Sub: Steam Turbine
Time: Three hours Full Marks: 100Use of Steam Table and Mollier Chart is permissible.Assume standard data if it is not given in the questionAnswer any five questions1. (a) What do you understand by the terms critical pressure ratio and nozzle choking? Explainwhy critical pressure ratio evaluation is necessary for nozzle design subject to

incompressible and compressible fluid flow? 4+4(b) “The theoretical calculated value of the critical pressure ratio for the design of steamnozzle is an approximate” - why? 3(c) Show mathematically that the critical pressure ratio for the actual flow through a nozzleincreases compared to that value obtained from an ideal flow for identical inlet conditionsof the steam. 92. (a) What do you understand by metastable flow through a convergent-divergent nozzle?Why it is called under cooling? Also represent the whole expansion process on p-v andT-s diagrams for a convergent-divergent nozzle assuming thermal non-equilibrium flowupto the throat. 4+1+4(b) Dry saturated steam with an initial pressure of 12 bar is expanded in a group of convergent-divergent nozzles with the square cross-section. These nozzles are fitted withthe diaphragm of a turbine. The power developed on the blades is 200 kW and thespecific steam consumption is calculated as 10 K.g/kW-h on the basis of power availableat the shaft. The back pressure is 0.05 bar. The nozzle efficiency is 85% and theapproximate throat width of each nozzle is 10 mm. Design the suitable number of nozzles, and calculate the corrected throat dimensions. Assume that the steam expands inthermal equilibrium and there is a leakage of steam of 2% through the space between thediaphragm the rotating shaft and amount of disk friction and windage losses is 2 kW. 113. (a) Show the direction of resultant force and magnitude acting on the blades for an impulse-reaction turbine. Why magnitude of reaction force is not so increased from the practicalpoint of view? 4(b)

Show with the help of diagram the absolute pressure and velocity distribution along theaxis of a simple impulse turbine and then define the term 'residual losses'. Also mentionthe basic disadvantages of such type of turbine. 6(c)

Deduce a general expression for the blade efficiency of a stage of an impulse turbine withsingle raw wheel. Then derive the expression for maximum blade efficiency of suchturbine with the consideration of negligible blade friction and equiangular blades. Draw anet sketch of velocity diagram satisfying the above design condition. 6+4