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Steam Turbine a Part i b Seme 2 2006

# Steam Turbine a Part i b Seme 2 2006

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05/04/2011

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EX/PM 30C/19/2006
FINAL B.E. (MECH.) PART-IB EXAMINATION, 2006
(2nd Semester)
STEAM TURBINE - A
Time: Three Hours Full Marks - 100Answer any
Five
questions1. a) What do you mean critical pressure ratio? Deduce anexpression of critical pressure ratio for expansion of a compressible fluid through a nozzle. 10 b) Show that for frictionless flow of steam throughequiangular blades, steam is finally discharged fromthe simple impulse turbine in the axial direction tohave maximum blade efficiency. 5c) Why is axial thrust produced in Reaction Turbine ismuch more than that produced in Impulse Turbine? 52. The throat diameter of a nozzle which is round in cross-section is 0.6 cm. Steam is supplied to the nozzle at 10 bar dry saturated and the back pressure is 1.5 bar.Findi) the mass flow rate through the nozzleii) K.E. available at the nozzle exit andiii) final condition of steam if the nozzle efficiency is90%.Assume frictionless flow up to the throat. 20[Turn over]

-2-3. a) Show that the maximum blade efficiency of asimple impulse turbine is given by
( )
α
2 b
cos2KM1
η
max
+=
where K=friction factor,
2112
β
and
β
,cos
β
cos
β
M
=
being blade inlet and outlet angle and
α
1

= nozzleangle. 6 b) In a simple impulse turbine the nozzle angle is 16° andthe blade outlet angle 25°. Steam is discharged fromthe nozzle with a velocity of 720m/sec. and the bladevelocity is 180m/sec. The blade velocity co-efficientis 0.75. For a steam flow rate of 2 kg/sec throughthe turbine. Determine — i) energy dissipated in the blades due to friction.ii) power developed andiii) diagram efficiency. 144. In a two row Curtis Turbine steam is discharged finally inthe axial direction. The nozzle angle is 17° and the exitangles of the 1st row moving blades, fixed blades and the2nd row moving blades are 22°, 26° and 30° respectively.The mean blade speed is 125m/sec. and blade velocity co-efficient is 0.9 for all the blades. Draw the velocitydiagrams and find out — i) absolute velocity of steam leaving the stage.ii) power developed per kg. of steam flow per sec.iii) inlet angle of the fixed blades and

-
3
-
iv) ratio of axial thrust produced in the 1st row of moving blades to that produced in the 2nd row. 205. a) What do you mean by a Parsons Turbine? Draw thevelocity diagram of a Parsons Turbine stage havingmaximum blade efficiency. 4 b) The power output of a certain stage of a ParsonsTurbine is 4.4 KW when running at 400 r.p.m. Thesteam consumption of the turbine is 5 Kg/Sec. The blade exit angle is 20° for both fixed and moving blades and the axial velocity of flow is 0.72 of the blade speed. The average pressure in that stage is 2 bar with 0.96 dryness fraction. Calculate the drumdiameter and the blade height of that stage assumingtip leakage as 50% of the steam consumption. 166. a) What do you mean by ‘Reheat Factor’ of a multistageturbine? Show that for equal stage efficiency for different stages, the internal efficiency of themultistage turbine is always greater than the individualstage efficiency. 8 b) What is meant by erosion of turbine blades. Explainwith velocity diagram how erosion takes place inthe turbine blades? Where such erosion will take place? 6c) What do you mean by throttle control governing of steam turbine? Draw Willans line for a throttlecontrolled steam turbine. State how steamconsumption at

no load can be determined. How[Turn over
]