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1 Introduction
1.1 Version Notes
1.2 Introductory Remarks
2.3 Disjunction
2.4 Implication
2.5 Biconditional and Exclusive Or
2.6 Negation and Indirect Proof
2.7 Generality and the Rule of Substitution
2.8 Note on Order of Operations
2.9 Quantiﬁers
2.10 Proving Quantiﬁed Statements and Using Quan-
2.11 Equality and Uniqueness
2.12 Dummy Variables and Substitution
2.13 Are we doing formal logic yet?
2.14 Exercises
3 Typed theory of sets
3.1 Types in General
3.2 Typed Theory of Sets
3.4 Simple Ideas of Set Theory
3.5 Finite Number; the Axiom of Inﬁnity; Ordered
3.5.1 Digression: The Quine Ordered Pair
3.5.2 Exercises
3.6 Relations and Functions
3.6.1 Exercises
3.7 Deﬁning Functions by Recursion; First-Order Peano
3.7.1 Exercises
3.8.1 Exercises
3.9 Cardinal Number and Arithmetic
3.9.1 Exercises
3.10 Number Systems
3.11 Well-Orderings and Ordinal Numbers
3.11.1 Exercises
3.12 Transﬁnite Induction and Recursion
3.12.1 Exercises
3.14 Other Forms of the Axiom of Choice
3.14.1 Exercises
3.15.1 Exercises
3.16 Cantor’s Theorem
3.16.1 Cardinal Exponentiation and the Theorem
3.16.2 Applications to the Number Systems
3.17 Sets of Reals
3.18 Complex Type Theories
3.19 Inﬁnite Indexed Families; K¨onig’s Theorem
3.20 Partition Relations
3.21 Large Cardinals
3.22.1 Coding Sets in Relations
3.22.2 Passing to Isomorphism Types
3.22.3 The Hierarchy of Ranks of Set Pictures
4 Untyped theory of sets
4.1 The original system of Zermelo
4.1.1 Exercises
4.3 Developing mathematics in Zermelo set theory
4.4 Digression: Interpreting typed set theory as Mac
4.5 The von Neumann deﬁnitions of ordinal and car-
4.5.1 Exercises
4.6 The Axiom of Replacement and ZFC
4.7 Translation between Type Theory and Set Theory
5.1 Formalization of Syntax and Substitution
5.1.1 Exercises
5.2 Formalization of Reference and Satisfaction
5.2.1 Exercises
5.3 Formal Propositional Sequent Calculus
5.6 Incompleteness and Undeﬁnability of Truth
6 Model Theory
6.1 Ultraﬁlters and Ultrapowers
6.2 Technical Methods for Consistency and Indepen-
6.2.1 Frankel-Mostowski Methods; The Independence of Choice
6.2.2 Constructibility and the Minimal Model of Type Theory
6.2.3 Forcing and the Independence of CH
6.2.4 Generalizing the T operation
6.2.5 Forcing: Basic Deﬁnitions
7 Saving the Universe: Stratiﬁed Set Theo-
7.1 Introducing NFU
7.1.1 Typical Ambiguity Examined
7.1.4 There are Urelements
7.1.5 NFU is Consistent
7.2 Extensions of NFU
7.2.1 The Axiom of Counting; ω-Models
7.2.3 The Axiom of Small Ordinals; the BEST model
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Proof Sets Logic

Proof Sets Logic

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11/12/2012

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