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ROSE - INTERNET TEXT

ROSE - INTERNET TEXT

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Published by ABID H

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Published by: ABID H on Sep 03, 2008
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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09/27/2010

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Rose occupied an unique position almost in all civilization the world has met sofar. It symbolises, according to Roman mythology, Venus the god of love andpeace. Rose was the medium of conveying the eternal love and appreciating thebeauty in the classic masterpiece such as
"Rubayat-e-Omarkhayam" 
. Rose wasthe favourite flower of many Mughal Badshah like Shahjahan. Its popularity,because of its fragrance and enchanting colours, remains unabated. It is themost cherished flower all over the world - hence, its commercial value apart fromits beauty, remains eternal. Therefore, global popularity of rose throws out a verypotential entrepreneurial opportunity in a sustainable way.STEP-WISE CULTIVATION TECHNIQUE .1. SOIL QUALITY: Sandy-loam, red-loam, silty-loam soil will be best suited for rose cultivation. .2. SOIL pH: 5.5 to 6.5 is ideal for rose, because useful soil bacteria that fix theatmospheric nitrogen and solubilises phosphate present in the soil grow wellaround this range of pH. If the pH falls below 5.5 than it can be amended byapplying lime powder @ 100 kg per acre.3. SALINITY: Rose dislikes saline soil as sodium carbonate which is present inthe saline soil is harmful to the plants. Necessary soil amendment is requiredprior to plantation. Generally, soil salinity increases due to poor drainage,particularly in coastal areas and in heavy clay soil areas. Therefore, suitablemethods for sub-soil drainage of water along with neutralisation of sodiumcarbonate are to be adopted. The soil amendment procedure is given below.
 Application of Gypsum:
Gypsum or sulphur may be used effectively soilamendment agent to correct the soil salinity. Calcium of gypsum reacts, in soil,with sodium carbonate and calcium is precipitated g$ calcium carbonate. Harmfulsodium carbonate is converted to soluble sodium sulphale which is leached outwith water. Application of Sulphur: Similarly, sulphur is oxidized, in soil, tosulphuric..acid which reacts with sodium carbonate to form soluble sodiumsulphate.4. CLIMATE: Climatic factors controls the growth of rose plants. Rose usuallydislikes humid climate, but can tolerate high temperature. Further, rose does notbloom in a temperature below 10° Celsius. Rose plant should receive 8 hoursexposure to sun rays. Shady area is not at all suitable for rosary.5. LAND: Up land having proper drainage of excess of sub-soil water. Anyrobbing roots of plants like coconut or some big trees near the rose field willretard the growth of rose plants as these robbing roots suck the nutrients fromthe nearby lands.6. TYPES OF CULTIVARS NEEDED FOR COMMERCIAL ROSARY:
 
1.Hybrid Tea Roses which are evolved by crossing Tea Roses withperpetuals are suitable for big venture, but not for the beginners or smallgrowers. Hybrid Tea Roses are highly valued in the cut flowers markets allover the world due to attractive size and colours, but their cultivationrequires maximum cares, modern technological adoption and skill or expertise. After acquiring the required expertise, one can venture out for hybrid tea roses. It has export potential.2.Common commercial roses for decoration purposes; A beginner can startwith such roses as they require less cares and technology.3.Floribundas are exotic variety roses evolved by crossing hybrid polyanthawith Hybrid Teas. Floribundas require high skill and more attention. It issuitable for big ventures for 100 % export. Floribundas can also becultivated along with hybrid tea roses in a big way.4.Damask rose may be cultivated exclusively for manufacturing roseessence, rose-water and a pan Masala called Gulkand in industrial scale.In India, damask rose is being cultivated extensively in Uttar Pradesh andUttarachanl states.7. LAND PREPARATION:(I) TIME OF TILLAGE : October to November (II) DEPTH OF TILLAGE: 9" tillage by tractor or bullock drawn plough followed by15 days exposure to sun rays.(III) PIT PREPARATION
(a) Size:
For rose cultivation, pits of size 45 cm X 45 cm X 30 cm are preparedfor plantation of rose plantlets.
(b) Spacing:
0.75m from pit to pit & 0.75m from row to row in low densitycultivation accommodating about 7,000 plants per acre with plant density1.729/m
2
. In case of green house culture, high density plantation willaccommodate 28,000 plants per acre having plant density
71m
,
( 1 hactare=2.471 acres)
(c) Refilling of Pits:
After exposing to sun rays for 15 days the pits are refilledwith soil-manure mixture in the following composition. i. Soil40%ii. Cow-dung 40%iii.Leaf-mould 10 %iv.Oil-cake, Bone-meal 10 %v. Urea 25gvi. SSP100 gvii. MOP 50g
 
 Plantlets are planted after a week of refilling the pits.8. PLANTING8. PLANTING MATERIALS:(I) BUD-GRAFTED PLANTLETS: Bud grafted plantlets are usually used as theplanting material in rose cultivation. In bud grafting method, wild variety of roselike
Rosa gigentia
is usually used as root-stock on which buds of exotic varietiesare grafted. Such grafted plantlets are available with Nurseries. But, the demeritsof such bud grafted plantlets are that (1) the process of bud grafting is verycumbersome and (2) plantlets may not be disease free. Therefore, it is advisablethat grafted plantlets should be purchased from renowned Nurserymen.(II) SEEDLINGS: Raising of seedling from rose seed is possible, the process isvery cumbersome and delatory. Seedlings from seeds are raised in case of invention of new varieties on hybridization.(III) TISSUE CULTURE: Disease free and high yielding rose plantlets are nowbeing produced in large quantities in wide range of varieties by tissue culturemethod which is a branch of modern biotechnology. An entrepreneur who wantsto start a commercial rosary in a big way must use tissue culture plantlets tomaintain quality of produce.9. PLANTATION: The planting materials are planted in the prepared pits duringevening hours. Before planting, 5 gram of Furadan 3G is to be applied to the pitfor controlling pests. After plantation, the plantlets as well as the root zone of each plant to be sprayed with systemic fungicide like Bavistin ( 2g in one litre of water) as a prophylactic against fungal diseases.10. MAINTENANCE CARES:(i) REMOVAL OF SUCKERS OF ROOT STOCK: Very often, off shoots or suckers from the root-stock stem come up at the base of the plantlets or belowthe grafted point which, if allows to grow by mistake, will retard the growth of thegrafted part ultimately leading to its death. The off-shoot of the root-stock part willbe seven leaved and odd pinnate which is to be pinched off as soon as it comes

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