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Deepwater Horizon

Deepwater Horizon

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Published by Parsa Ata
UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MALAYSIA
Crisis Management & Legislations in Safety, Health, Environment
MAJID AKBARI TALEB ABADI

Deepwater Horizon oil spill
Chapter one

Introduction

According to U. S. Environmental Protection Agency, EPA seeks to prevent, prepare for, and respond to oil spills that occur in and around inland waters of the United States. EPA is the lead federal response agency for oil spills occurring in inland waters, and the U.S. Coast Guard is the lead response agency for spills in coastal waters and deepwater ports. The U.S. Coast Guard is one of the five armed forces of the United States and the onl
UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MALAYSIA
Crisis Management & Legislations in Safety, Health, Environment
MAJID AKBARI TALEB ABADI

Deepwater Horizon oil spill
Chapter one

Introduction

According to U. S. Environmental Protection Agency, EPA seeks to prevent, prepare for, and respond to oil spills that occur in and around inland waters of the United States. EPA is the lead federal response agency for oil spills occurring in inland waters, and the U.S. Coast Guard is the lead response agency for spills in coastal waters and deepwater ports. The U.S. Coast Guard is one of the five armed forces of the United States and the onl

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Published by: Parsa Ata on May 05, 2011
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Deepwater Horizon
oil spill
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Page 
Chapter oneIntroduction
According to U. S. Environmental Protection Agency, EPA seeks to prevent, prepare for,and respond to oil spills that occur in and around inland waters of the United States. EPA is thelead federal response agency for oil spills occurring in inland waters, and the U.S. Coast Guard isthe lead response agency for spills in coastal waters and deepwater ports. The U.S. Coast Guardis one of the five armed forces of the United States and the only military organization within theDepartment of Homeland Security. The Coast Guard protects the maritime economy and theenvironment, defends maritime borders, and saves those in peril.
Background of study
The
 Deepwater Horizon
oil spill is an oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico which flowed for three months in 2010. The impact of the spill continues even after the well has been capped. It isthe largest accidental marine oil spill in the history of the petroleum industry. The spill stemmedfrom a sea-floor oil gusher that resulted from the April 20, 2010 explosion of 
 Deepwater  Horizon
, which drilled on the BP-operated Macondo Prospect. The explosion killed 11 menworking on the platform and injured 17 others. On July 15, the leak was stopped by capping thegushing wellhead, after it had released about 4.9 million barrels (205.8 million gallons) of crudeoil. It was estimated that 53,000 barrels per day (8,400 m³/d) were escaping from the well just before it was capped. It is believed that the daily flow rate diminished over time, starting at about62,000 barrels per day (9,900 m³/d) and decreasing as the reservoir of hydrocarbons feeding thegusher was gradually depleted. On September 19, the relief well process was successfullycompleted, and the federal government declared the well "effectively dead´.
 
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Page The spill caused extensive damage to marine and wildlife habitats as well as theGulf's fishing and tourism industries. In late November 2010, 4,200 square miles (11,000 km²) of the Gulf were re-closed to shrimping after tar balls were found in shrimpers' nets. The totalamount of Louisiana shoreline impacted by oil grew from 287 miles (462 km) in July to 320miles (510 km) in late November 2010. In January 2011, an oil spill commissioner reported thattar balls continue to wash up, oil sheen trails are seen in the wake of fishing boats, wetlandsmarsh grass remains fouled and dying, and that crude oil lies offshore in deep water and in finesilts and sands onshore. A research team found oil on the bottom of the seafloor in late February2011 that did not seem to be degrading.Skimmer ships, floating containment booms, anchored barriers, sand-filled barricadesalong shorelines, and dispersants were used in an attempt to protect hundreds of miles of  beaches, wetlands, and estuaries from the spreading oil. Scientists have also reported immenseunderwater not visible at the surface as well as an 80-square-mile (210 km²) "kill zone"surrounding the blown well.The U.S. Government has named BP as the responsible party, and officials havecommitted to holding the company accountable for all cleanup costs and other damage. After itsown internal probe, BP admitted that it made mistakes which led to the Gulf of Mexico oil spill.
Scope of study
The scope of this study is to remove the oil from the water have been burning the oil,filtering off-shore, and collecting for later processing.
 
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Chapter twoIntroduction
There are many factors that may account for different flow rate estimates announced asthe spill response progressed. These included changing oil/gas ratios, reservoir depletion, andremoval of partial restrictions (i.e., cutting off the bent riser), and various collection methods.This chapter is overview and summery of the U.S. Coast Guard report about deepwater horizonoil spill in January 20011 that discus about quantifying the exact amount of oil being dischargedinto the environment.
1.
 
CHARACTERISTICS AND QUALIFICATIONS OF AN EFFECTIVE CRISISLEADER 
Many Government Agencies and private corporations grow´ leaders from within. Theyalso often bring in proven leaders from outside to provide new leadership and direction for theorganization; however, the skills of organization and the ability to manage and lead are only baseline competencies when a crisis arises. The outcome of a crisis or the success of a responseto the crisis is directly related to effective crisis leadership.Some leaders are naturally suited for such a role, but often are not the ones who find themconfronting a crisis or are not the ones placed in the position of leadership when the crisis occurs.Leaders involved in crisis management may find themselves on national television, with little or no media training or experience for their leadership position. Crisis managers are required tomake critical and binding decisions without the benefit of lengthy study or peer-reviewed advice.The crisis dictates the pace, tempo, and duration that drives the decisionmaking process.Leaders not trained and prepared to function effectively in a crisis can create an image of incompetence, chaos, or disorganization, even if the incident is being managed competently and

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