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Table Of Contents

THE T-2 TANKER DURING WORLD WAR II AND BEYOND
Hull Structure of the T-2 Tanker
The T-2 Tanker’s Propulsion Machinery
THE SUEZ CANAL: ITS INFLUENCE ON OIL TANKER SIZE
Increase in Tanker Size and Change in Profle
Development of the Supertanker
THE MILLION-TON CRUDE OIL CARRIER (PROJECTED)
Hull Design and Cargo Tank Confguration
The Million-Tonner and the “Squat Phenomenon”
Aesthetics: Deciding the Tanker’s Profle
The ULCC Jahre Viking
The ULCC Batillus
Transporting Crude Oil Using the “Delta” System
A Brief History of the Nature of Crude Oil
Crude Oil Production
Ocean Transportation of Crude Oil
Global Sea Transportation of Crude Oil
ANATOMY OF AN OIL SPILL AT SEA
The Case for the U.S. Oil Pollution Act of 1990
Single-Hulls, Double-Hulls, and OPA ’90
The European Union’s Phase Out of Single-Hull Tankers
THE QUEST FOR THE ENVIRONMENT FRIENDLY OIL TANKER
Atmospheric Pollution by Ships
The Diesel Engine Onboard Ships
Is Global Climate Change a Threat to Shipping?
Atmospheric Pollution from Emissions
Ballast Water Management
Inert Gas
Crude Oil Washing of Cargo Tanks of Crude Oil Carriers
The Load on Top System (LOT)
THE DOUBLE-HULL SAGA AND HULL DESIGN INITIATIVES
Pollution of the Seas by Oil
The Double-Hull versus the Mid-Deck
New Global Timetable to Phase Out Single-Hull Oil Tankers
Alternative Designs to Double-Hull
The European Double-Hull VLCC “E3”
The Double-Hull Design and Early Concerns
A Safer, Maintenance Friendly Oil Tanker Design
The Double-Hull Tanker Structure
THE QUEST FOR THE ROBUST TANKER HULL STRUCTURE
Longitudinal Framing of the Cargo Tank Body and the Tanker
Hull Design and the Hull Designer
Hull Stress Monitoring
Tanker Hull Design Engineering
Empirical Approach
The Cost and the Risk
Tanker Hull Strength and the U.S. Ship Structure Committee
The Tanker Hull Structure Designer
The Steel Weight of a Tanker
Hull Structure and Critical Waves and Loads
Hull Structural Failure
The Practical Aspect in the Design of Tanker Hull Structure
Dynamic Loading and Strength
Abnormal Sea Conditions
Sea-Keeping and Hull Motions
Abnormal Sea Waves
An Integrated Approach to Energy Saving Onboard Tankers
NUCLEAR AND OTHER FORMS OF ENERGY FOR COMMERCIAL SHIPS
The Fast (Breeder) Reactor
The Supply of Nuclear Fuel
Trends in Energy and Nuclear Power
The Nuclear Industry’s Dilemma
Nuclear Energy for Commercial Ships
The Nuclear Ship Savannah
The Nuclear Ship Mutsu
The Nuclear Reactor for Commercial Ships
The World Nuclear University
Electromagnetic Propulsion
How the Fuel Cell Works
The Fuel Cell System for Commercial Ship Propulsion
Hydrogen
Physical Properties of Hydrogen
The Problems Facing the Use of Hydrogen
Hydrogen and Economic Sense
Wind-Assisted Propulsion
THE SHIPBUILDING INDUSTRY
The Competitive Challenge for International Shipbuilding
THE USE OF STEEL IN SHIPBUILDING
Electric Arc Welding in Shipbuilding
The Higher Strength Steels
Steel Fatigue Analysis and Hull Design
Fatigue and Brittle Fracture
Steel Corrosion, Prevention, and the Corrosion Margin
Paint Application to New Structures
Steel Surface Preparation
Preventing Corrosion
Corrosion Margin (Corrosion Allowance)
Cathodic Protection of Tanker Hull Structure
Electrolytic De-scaling of Steel Structure
A Tanker’s Operational Life
Life Extension
Tanker Hull Structural Failures
The International Association of Classifcation Societies
IMO’s Goal-Based Standards
The International Standards Organization (ISO)
Development of the International Maritime Organization (IMO)
The Flag State or State of Registry
The Port State
The International Safety Management Code
REDUNDANCY OF PROPULSION AND STEERING EQUIPMENT
RISK ASSESSMENT IN SHIP DESIGN AND OPERATION
The Management of Technical Risk
The Management of Business Risk
Tolerability of Risk/Permissible Risk
Epilogue
P. 1
From T-2 to Supertanker

From T-2 to Supertanker

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From T-2 to Supertanker provides a unique insight into the oil tanker industry’s efforts to produce safe and efficient vessels.Dr. Andrew G. Spyrou believes that marine transportation is the key to effective global shipping, part of which is carrying petroleum by tanker. Enormous changes have taken place in tanker design and construction since World War II. Closure of the Suez Canal on two occasions-1956 and 1967-provided the impetus to enlarge the tanker and to improve tanker performance and safety.The industry’s efforts to design and construct today’s modern tankers, driven by scale, safety and ecological concerns, have led to ever-larger models. Today’s ‘Very Large’ and ‘Ultra Large’ crude oil carriers represent the most complex mobile steel structures ever developed.Spyrou discusses how this industry is striving to minimize vital ecological concerns such as oil pollution of the seas, atmospheric pollution by engine exhaust, and contamination of the marine ecosystem. Advances, however, have not been without crises, challenges, and successes.
From T-2 to Supertanker provides a unique insight into the oil tanker industry’s efforts to produce safe and efficient vessels.Dr. Andrew G. Spyrou believes that marine transportation is the key to effective global shipping, part of which is carrying petroleum by tanker. Enormous changes have taken place in tanker design and construction since World War II. Closure of the Suez Canal on two occasions-1956 and 1967-provided the impetus to enlarge the tanker and to improve tanker performance and safety.The industry’s efforts to design and construct today’s modern tankers, driven by scale, safety and ecological concerns, have led to ever-larger models. Today’s ‘Very Large’ and ‘Ultra Large’ crude oil carriers represent the most complex mobile steel structures ever developed.Spyrou discusses how this industry is striving to minimize vital ecological concerns such as oil pollution of the seas, atmospheric pollution by engine exhaust, and contamination of the marine ecosystem. Advances, however, have not been without crises, challenges, and successes.

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Publish date: Apr 20, 2011
Added to Scribd: May 05, 2011
Copyright:Traditional Copyright: All rights reservedISBN:9781462002351
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