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Binary Operations Notes

# Binary Operations Notes

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Lecture notes on Binary Operations
Lecture notes on Binary Operations

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04/28/2013

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Lecture Notes On Binary Operations, 2011 (Oteng R. Selasie, B.Ed. Mathematics)

1

BINARY OPERATIONS
Introduction
You first learned of binary operations in elementary (basic) school. The objects you wereusing were mainly numbers and the binary operations you investigated were addition,subtraction, multiplication, and division.The concept of binary operations in mathematics has been defined by many based ontheir different understanding of the concept.Few are:-

A
binary operation
is a calculation involving
,in other words, anoperation whose
is two. Examples include the familiararithmeticoperations -

A binary operation is simply a rule for combining two objects of a given type, toobtain another object of that type.Considering all the above definitions, I can confidently summarise the idea of a binaryoperation as;
a way to produce an element of a set from a given pair of elements of thesame set according to a rule of operation
.By way of summary, binary operation is:In studying binary operations on sets, we tend to be interested in those operations thathave certain properties and we will discuss this further.Let us begin by taking a closer look at the properties of binary operations.These properties form the basis for a better understanding of the concept of binaryoperations.Remember that, the properties of binary operation are in application in many sectors orindustries of our economy including the stock market, transportation, IT, energy,medicine, printing, etc.Any
operation or sign
that combines any
two elements
of agiven
set
according to some clearly
defined rule
.

Lecture Notes On Binary Operations, 2011 (Oteng R. Selasie, B.Ed. Mathematics)

2

PROPERTIES
1.

Closure Property

(a)

Suppose the binary operation of
addition “+” is defined on a set of real numbers.
We notice that whenever two real numbers are added, we still obtain a real number.
Under those circumstances, we say that the operation of addition “+” is
closed
on theset of real numbers.(b)

Suppose we define the binary operation of addition “+” on the set


, wenotice that 3+7=10, but


so “+” is not closed on the set A.
In general, the binary operation
defined on a set S is closed on S if and only if This resembles the idea of a nuclear family where
there is no “step” son or daughter
byeither the father or mother. Rather, all children in the nuclear family come from thesame source [same father, same mother]. In that sense, the set of nuclear family is closed.No intruders or strangers.!!
Examples
1.

The binary operation
is defined on the set

by

. Is the operation
closed on S?
From the equation








. But

, therefore the operation
is not closed2.

The binary operation
is defined on the set

by the table below.Is the operation
closed on the set B?
From the table, we notice that
, so the operation
is not closed on the set B.
a b c da a b c d b c d b cc a b c dd m c a b


Lecture Notes On Binary Operations, 2011 (Oteng R. Selasie, B.Ed. Mathematics)

3

3.

The operation
is defined on the set

by the table below.Is the operation
closed on S?
Since all the answers in the table (numbers in the shaded region) are members of set S,the operation
is closed on the set S.
2.

Commutative Property
The binary operation
defined on the set S is said to be commutative if and only if This property is properly one of the oldest and most frequently used properties that weas students of mathematics have been using since our elementary days. Changing of positions and still getting the same answer. Remember?
  
.
Therefore, the commutative property is a very simple one that does not need muchexplanation.

Examples
1.

The binary operation
is defined on the set R of real numbers by

  
.(a)

Evaluate

(i).
)
(ii).

(iii).
What
conclusion can you draw from the resultsin (i) and (ii)?

(b)

Find the truth set of

,
correct to two decimal places.
(a)

(i).






(ii).







1 3 51 3 1 53 1 3 55 5 5 5
