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Reproduction Physiology

Reproduction Physiology

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Published by ramadan

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Published by: ramadan on May 05, 2011
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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 Reprod (Q & A)
Q. List different Male Sexual Organs
A) Primary reproductive organs:
The testis:-
composed of coiled seminiferous tubules.
B) 2ry sex organs:
1- The epididymis. 2- The vas deferens. 3- The seminal vesicle empties into ampulla.4- The ejaculatory ducts. 5- The urethra is the last connection link between testis & exterior.6- The bulbouretheral glands located near origin of urethra.
Q. Summarize functions of male sex organs
Organ Structure Function
formed of seminiferous tubulesseparated by interstitial cells.
production of sperm (seminiferous tubules/FSH);secretion of testosterone (interstitial cells, LH)
tightly coiled tubule superior to testes; leads to vasdeferens
- site of sperm maturation.- site of acquiring motility.- storage of epididymis.
Vas Deferens
muscular tube leading fromepididymis.
- storage of sperms.- movement of sperm
Seminal Vesicle
sac-like structure attached tovas deferens
- dilute thick mass of sperm that make them mobile.- provide more than 50% of semen.- contain fibrinogen that helps to clot semen in vaginaimmediately after ejaculation.- contains prostaglandins:* reacting with cervical mucus to help rapid passage of sperm into uterus.* inducing reverse contraction in the uterus & fallopiantubes to move sperm toward ovary.- addition of fructose (energy source) to sperm/semen
sponge-like structure belowbladder and surroundingurethra
- addition of milky alkaline fluid to semen to neutralizeacidity of fluid of vas and vaginal secretion so increasesperm motility & fertility.- contain Ca, citrate and phosphate ions.- contain clotting enzymes & fibrinolysin:* clotting enzymes: act on fibrinogen to clot semen after ejaculation.* fibrinolysin dissolves semen after few minutes.
ulbourethral Gls
two structures below prostate
Secrete mucus for lubrication of sexual intercourse.
vascular columns fill withblood causing erection
is held in female vagina during intercourse for transfer of sperm
pouch of skin and fat
allow cooler temperature to insure sperm production
 Reprod (Q & A)
Q. Describe Functions of male reproductive system
1- The testi
The testis is composed of 2 parts:
I- The seminiferous tubules
:They are 900 coiled tubes in which the sperms are formed (spermatogenesis).They contain sertoli cells that extend the whole thickness from the basement membrane to the lumen.
II- Interstitial cells of Leydig
(Leydig cells):These cells are large cells that are situated in the connective tissue between the seminiferous tubules.These cells secrete androgens chiefly
2- Epididymis 
* Receive the sperm & Sertoli cell secretion.* Sperms are stored, mature & gain motility.* Concentrate the sperms.
3- Vas deferens 
* Carries semen from epididymis to ejaculatory ducts.* Stores sperms until ejaculated.
4- Seminal vesicles 
produce about 60% of the semen* Secrete a mucoid material that contain fructose, citric acid, other nutrient and large quantities of prostaglandinsand fibrinogen* Empties its content into the ejaculatory duct during the process of emission* Fructose and other substances are of considerable nutrient value for the ejaculated sperm.* Secrete fibrinogen for seminal clotting.* Prostaglandins are believed to aid fertilization by:
reacting with cervical mucus to make it more receptive to sperm movement
possibly causing reverse peristaltic contraction of the uterus and fallopian tubes to move the spermtowards the ovaries
5- Prostate 
Secretes about one third of the semen volume. It secretes a milky, slightly acidic fluid containing citrate, acidphosphatase and several proteolytic enzymes. These enzymes are probably involved in
breaking down the mucus plug in the cervix. They also appear to contribute to the motility and viability of the sperm 
6- Bulouretheral glands 
* Produce mucus for lubrication and is believed to neutralize traces of acidic urine in the urethra.
 Reprod (Q & A)
Q. Enumerate different functions of Sertoli cells
Large cells extend from basement membrane of seminiferous tubule to its lumen.Their development is
stimulated by FS
 Functions of Sertoli cells
Tight junctions
between Sertoli cells form
blood testis barrier:
* Maintain critical composition of tubular fluid for sperm maturation.* It also prevents harmful substances in blood from reaching the lumen & protects sperms.* Prevents antigenic products of germ cell division from entering the blood so prevent the formation of antibodies.
2- Nutritive function:
Sertoli cells secrete fluid to
provide nutrients 
for newly formed sperms.
They play a special role in
converting spermatid into sperm 
(spermiogenesis).They secrete enzymes which remove cytoplasm from spermatid & play a role in shaping the head & tail of sperm.
Endocrine function:
 *They produce
Androgen-binding protein 
that binds both testosterone & estrogen making them available for maturing sperm.
 ABP is found at high concentrations in the human testes and epididymis. It serves as a carrier of testosterone inSertoli cells, as a storage protein for androgens in the seminiferous tubules, and as a carrier of testosterone fromthe testes to the epididymis.
*Mullerian inhibitory factor (MIF):
inhibit formation of fallopian tubes from mullerian ducts in the male fetus.
* Estradiol:
has a stimulatory factor for spermatogenesis.
* Inhibin:
has inhibitory effect on A.P gland to prevent FSH oversecretion.

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