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Published by BrimmingInBedlam

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Published by: BrimmingInBedlam on Sep 03, 2008
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 byAlan Watts
A Speech
 When St. Augustin of Hipo was asked "What is time?" he replied, "I know what it is, but when you ask me I don't." And funnily enough, he is the man most responsible for theaverage commonsensical idea of time that prevails in the West. The Greeks and the EastIndians thought of time as a circular process. And anyone looking at his watch willobviously see that time goes around. But the Hebrews and the Christians think of timeas something that goes in a straight line. And that is a very powerful idea whichinfluences everybody living in the West today. We all have our various mythologies. AndI don't mean when I say the word "mythology," or "myth," something that is false in thepopular sense. By myth I mean an idea or an image in terms of which people make senseof the world. And the Western myth under which our common sense has been nurturedover many centuries, is that the world began, if you look at the marginal notes in yourcopy of the King James Bible, which of course descended from heaven with an angel inthe year 1611, you will see that the world was created in the year 4000 B.C., before which, and naturally the Lord God existed forever and ever and ever through endlesstime backwards. And then the world was created and of course the world fell apart, andso in the middle of time, the second person of the Trinity incarnated himself in JesusChrist to save mankind, and established the Church. And when this institution has notaltogether successfully done its work, there is expected the end of time. There will be aday which is called "The Last Day" in which God, the Son, will again appear in glory withhis legions of angels. And the Last Judgment will be held. And those who are saved willlive forever and ever contemplating the vision of the Blessed Trinity and those who didnot behave themselves will squirm forever and ever, that is to say, through everlastingtime in hell. And this, you see, is a one directional process. It happened once - it willnever be repeated because St. Augustin fixed on the idea that when God the Son cameinto this world and sacrificed himself for the remission of all sins, this was an event thathappened once and once only. I don't know why he thought that, but he sure did think it. And so we have got the idea that the universe of time is a unique story which had a
 beginning and it is going to have an end, and which will never never never happenagain. And so although most Westerners do not believe in this story anymore, although a greatmany of them think they ought to believe in it, but they in fact do not. They still retainfrom this way of thinking a linear view of time, that we are going in a single direction. We will never again go back over the course which we have followed. And we hope thatas we go on in time, things will get better and better. And this version of time lies in very strange and fascinating contrast to the view of time held by most other people in the world. And as a special example I will take the view of time of the Hindus. The Hindushad no such small-minded provincial idea as that the world was created in a mere 4000B.C. They reckoned the ages of the universe in units of four million, three hundred andtwenty thousand years. That is your basic counting unit, and it is called a kalpa. Andtheir understanding of the world is of course quite different from ours. We in the Westthink of the world as an artifact, something made by a grand technician, the Creator. Butthe Hindus do not think that the world is created at all. They look upon the world as adrama, not as created, but as acted. And they see God as the supreme actor, or what iscalled the cosmic self, playing all the parts. In other words, you and the birds and beesand the flowers, the rocks and the stars are all a big act being put on by God, who ispretending in order to amuse himself, through the many eternities, who is pretendingthat he is all of you. And this is not, after all, an unreasonable idea because if I were toask you very seriously to consider what you would do if you were God, you might find, Ithink, that being omniscient for always and always and always, and being in control of everything would be extremely boring. You would want a surprise. After all, what are wetrying to do with our technology - we are trying to control the world. And if you willimagine the ultimate fulfillment of technology, when we really are in control of everything, and we have great panels of push buttons whereon the slightest touch willfulfill every wish, you will eventually arrange to have a special red button on it marked"surprise." And you would touch that button and you will suddenly disappear from yournormal consciousness, and find your self in a situation very much like the one you arenow in, where you feel a little bit out of control of things, subject to surprises, andsubject to the whims of a not altogether predictable universe. And so the Hindus figurethat that is what God does every so often. That is to say, God, for a period of fourmillion, three hundred and twenty thousand years, knows who he is. And then he gets bored with it and forgets who he is for an equal period of four million, three hundredand twenty thousand years. As it were, he goes to sleep and has a dream. And this dream
is called the manvandara , but the period in which he wakes up and doesn't have thedream is called the pralaya., and that is a state of total bliss. But when he has a dream,he manifests the world. And the manifestation of the world is divided into four ages, andthese ages are named after the four throws in the Indian game of dice. The first throw iscalled krita,, which is the throw of four, the perfect throw. And that lasts for a very longtime. And in this period of manifestation, the world is absolutely delightful. It would bethe same, for example, if you had the privilege of dreaming any dream you wanted todream when you went to sleep at night. For at least a month you would dream out all your wishes. You would have banquets and music and dancing girls and everything that you ever thought you wanted, you would have. But then after a few weeks of this you would say "well, this is getting a little dull, and let's have an adventure and let's get intotrouble.' It is all right because we know we are going to wake up at the end of it. So you would engage dragons and rescue princesses from them and all that sort of thing. Andthen you would, after awhile you would get more and more far out. You would arrangeto forget that you were dreaming, and think you were really involved in danger, and what a surprise that would be when you woke up. And one of those nights when you were dreaming any dream you wanted to dream, you would find your self right now sitting in this auditorium listening to me, with all your special problems and hang-upsand involvement. How do you know that that is not what is happening?So then, after the first round in which everything is perfect, the krita yuga it is called,that epoch of time, there comes a somewhat shorter epoch called the ______ yuga ,that is the throw of three, and you know in the same way that a three-legged table isn'tquite as stable as a four legged table. In ______ yuga, the light goes on but there issomething a little bit off. It is a little bit insecure, though as it were the fly in theointment. And then when that comes to an end there is next a still shorter period calledthe davapala yuga , which is named after dava, the throw of two, in which period theforces of good and evil are equally balanced. And when that comes to an end, therefollows a still shorter period called the kali yuga . Yuga means epoch. And the kali meansthe throw of one, or the worst throw. And in this period the forces of negation anddestruction are finally triumphant. And this is supposed to have begun shortly before3000 B.C., and we have got another 5000 years of it to run. In this period everythingfalls apart, and gets worse and worse and worse until finally at the end the Lord himself appears in the disguise of Shiva, the destroyer, blue-bodied, ten arms with a necklace of skulls, each hand holding clubs and knives, but one hand in this (visual) gesture, whichmeans don't be afraid, it is a big act. And there upon the entire cosmos is destroyed in

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