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4.2 - Meiosis

4.2 - Meiosis

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Published by IB Screwed
IB Biology notes on the genetics topic Meiosis
IB Biology notes on the genetics topic Meiosis

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Published by: IB Screwed on May 05, 2011
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05/04/2015

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4.2
 –
 Meiosis
4.2.1 - State that meiosis is a reduction division of a diploid nucleus to form haploid nuclei
Meiosis consists of two divisions. In the first division, the diploid cell replicates its chromosomes then divides, forming two diploid cells. However, in the second division, there is no DNA replication, so the resultant cells only contain half the DNA. Therefore, each diploid cell that undergoes meiosis will produce four haploid cells. Diploid cells contain two sets of chromosomes, whilst haploid cells only contain one set.
4.2.2 - Define homologous chromosomes
Chromosomes in a diploid cell which contain the same sequence of genes, but are derived from different parents. During meiosis, the homologous chromosomes will pair up.
 
They share the same structural characteristics, such as length, shape and the loci of their genes. However, they may have different alleles of each gene.
 
4.2.3 - Outline the process of meiosis, including pairing of homologous chromosomes and crossing over, followed by two divisions, which result in four haploid cells
Interphase
In this stage, the nuclear membrane is intact and the chromosomes are not densely wound. In the
G1 Stage
, the chromosomes are still single DNA molecules with their histones. In the
S1 Stage
, there is replication of chromosomes. Sister chromatids are held together at the centromere.
Meiosis I
Prophase I
The DNA condenses by super coiling and become visible. Homologous chromosomes pair up. Crossing over occurs as there is breakage and reunion of parts of chromatids - this is the exchange of genetic material between the non-sister chromatids. The nuclear membrane breaks down and spindles form from the microtubules at opposite ends of cell, organised by the centrioles
Metaphase I
The pairs of homologous chromosomes line up along the equator. The spindle fibres attach to the centromere. The random orientation of the chromosomes means that the maternal or paternal chromosome may move to either pole.
 Anaphase I
Spindle fibres shorten, pulling the chromosomes towards the opposite poles. Sister chromatids remain attached at the centromere. Each pole will have a complete haploid set of chromosomes consisting of one member of each homologous pair.
 
Telophase I
The spindle breaks down and the nuclear membrane reforms. Each daughter nucleus contains two sister chromatids for each chromosome, attached at the centromere. Crossing over means that the two sister chromatids are not identical. The cell divides and the two resulting cells are haploid cells
Meiosis II
Prophase II
The nuclear membrane breaks down and a new spindle forms. The chromosomes appear as two chromatids joined at the centromere.
Metaphase II
The chromatids arrange at the equator and the spindle fibres bind to both sides of the centromeres
 Anaphase II
The spindle fibres contract, causing the centromeres divide. Sister chromatids move to opposite poles.
Telophase II
Spindle breaks down and nuclear envelopes reform around the sets of daughter chromosomes. The cells divide again through cytokinesis, resulting in four haploid cells. Meiosis contributes to
genetic variability
 as it reduces chromosomes by half, permitting fertilisation and combination of genes from two parents. There is
random assortment
 of maternal and paternal chromosomes during meiosis I, meaning that the genes from either parent have an equal chance of entering a cell. There is also
recombination
 of segments of individual paternal and maternal homologous chromosomes due to crossing over.

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