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Medical Surgical Nursing With Mnemonics

Medical Surgical Nursing With Mnemonics

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Published by khem0205

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Categories:Types, Reviews
Published by: khem0205 on May 05, 2011
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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03/16/2014

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FOCUS! AND AIM HIGH WITH GOD
Graphics & Edited By:
J. F. ADORABLE, RN.
Text from Pentagon Review Center
 
NERVOUS SYSTEM
Overview of structures and functions:
Central Nervous System
BrainSpinal Cord
Peripheral Nervous System
Cranial NervesSpinal Nerves
Autonomic Nervous System
Sympathetic nervous systemParasympathetic nervous system
AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM
Sympathetic Nervous System
(ADRENERGIC)
Parasympathetic Nervous System
(CHOLINERGIC, VAGAL, SYMPATHOLYTIC)-
Involved in fight or aggression response.- Release of Norepinephrine (cathecolamines)from
adrenal glands
and causes
vasoconstriction.
- Increase all bodily activity except GIT
EFFECTS OF SNS
- Dilation of pupils(
mydriasis
)in order to be aware.- Dry mouth (thickened saliva).- Increase BP and Heart Rate.- Bronchodilation, Increase RR- Constipation.- Urinary Retention.
FLUID VOLUME EXCESS
 - Increase blood supply to
brain
,
heart
and
skeletalmuscles
.- SNS
I. Adrenergic Agents
 
- Give
Epinephrine. [ADRENALIN]
 
Signs and Symptoms:
- SNS
Contraindication:
- Contraindicated to patients suffering from COPD(Broncholitis, Bronchoectasis, Emphysema, Asthma).
II. Anti-cholinergic Agents
 
-
To counter cholinergic agents.- Atropine Sulfate
 –
decreased mucus production
Side Effects
- SNS
Antipsychotics:
 
Haloperidol [Haldol], chlorpromazine
Thorazine, etc.Side effect of THORAZINE: atopicdermatitis and foul smelling odor.Side effect of all antipsychotic: signs of 
PARKINSON‘S DISEA
SE, thereforeantipsychotic are given together withantiparkinson drugs
Anti-parkinson drugs:
 
 
C.A.P.A.B.L.E.S
-
Involved in fight or withdrawal response.- Release of Acetylcholine.-vasodilationbronchoconstriction- Decreases all bodily activities except GIT.
EFFECTS OF PNS
- Constriction of pupils(
meiosis
).- Increase salivation.- Decrease BP and Heart Rate.- Bronchoconstriction, Decrease RR.- Diarrhea- Urinary frequency.
FLUID VOLUME DEF.
 -
antihypertension
 
I. Cholinergic Agents
 
-
Mestinon
,
Neostigmine
.
Side Effects
- PNS
II. Beta-adrenergic Blocking Agents
 
- Also called
Beta-blockers
.-
All ending with ―
lol
 -
Propranolol [Inderal]
,
Atenelol
,
Metoprolol
.
Effects of Beta-blockers
B
 –
roncho spasm
E
 
 –
licits a decrease in myocardial contraction.
T
 
 –
reats hypertension.
A
 
 –
V conduction slows down.
 
Should be given to patients with
AnginaPectoris
,
Myocardial Infarction
,
andHypertension
.
ANTI- HYPERTENSIVE AGENTS
1. Beta-blockers
 –
 
―lol‖
 2. Ace Inhibitors
 –
 
Angiotensin, ―pril‖ (Captopril,
 Enalapril)3. Calcium Antagonist
 –
Nifedipine (Calcibloc)
 
In chronic cases of arrhythmia give
Lidocaine
(
Xylocaine
)
 
CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
Brain and Spinal Cord.
[Spinal cord terminates at L
1
to L
2
therefore a LUMBAR TAP is performed at L
3 ,
L
4
or L
5
no risk for spinal cord damage]
 
I. CELLSA. NEURONS
Basic cells for nerve impulse and conduction.
PROPERTIESExcitability
 
 –
ability of neuron to be affected by changes in external environment.
Conductivity
 
 –
ability of neuron to transmit a wave of excitation from one cell to another.
Permanent Cell
 
 –
once destroyed not capable of regeneration.
TYPES OF CELLS BASED ON REGENERATIVE CAPACITY1. Labile
Capable of regeneration.Epidermal cells, GIT cells, GUT cells, cells of lungs.
2. Stable
Capable of regeneration with limited time, survival period.Kidney cells, Liver cells, salivary cells, pancreas.
3. Permanent
Not capable of regeneration.Myocardial cells, Neurons, Bone cells, Osteocytes, Retinal Cells.
B. NEUROGLIA
 
Support and protection of neurons.
TYPES1. Astrocytes
 –
 
maintains
blood brain barrier 
semi-permeable.
Majority of brain tumors (90%) arises from called
astrocytoma
.
2. Oligodendria
Produces
myelin sheath
in CNS. Act as insulator and facilitates rapid nerve impulse transmission
3. Microglia4. EpindymalSUBSTANCES THAT CAN PASS THE BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER1. Ammonia
 
Cerebral toxin
 
Hepatic Encephalopathy (Liver Cirrhosis)
 
Ascites
 
Esophageal Varices
Early Signs of Hepatic Encephalopathy
 
asterixis
(flapping hand tremors).
Late Signs of Hepatic Encephalopathy
 
Headache
 
Dizziness
 
Confusion
 
Fetor hepaticus
(ammonia like breath)
 
Decrease LOC [hepatic coma][AIRWAY FOR HEPATIC COMA]
2. Carbon Monoxide and Lead Poisoning
 
Can lead to
Parkinson’s disease
.[PILL ROLLING TREMORS]
 
Epilepsy
 
Treat with
ANTIDOTE
:
Calcium EDTA
For Lead poisoning
Hyperbaric oxygenation (100% O
2
)
For carbon monoxide poisoning

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can i have a copy?...pls?... angelic_angel_77721@yahoo.com ung email add ko.. super nice talaga ng work mo promise...pls needed ko lang din pag nag rereview...pls pls pls...
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