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Table Of Contents

Historical background
Recent developments in Biotechnology
Future prospects for the development of biotechnology
Introduction to biotechnological resources and techniques
Cultures: (microbial, animal and plant)
Microbial cultures:
Culture maintenance
Raw materials (substrates) used for the growth and production in
Improvement of product quality and quantity by manipulating the process
I- Upstream manipulation (Strain development)
II- Down stream processing: It include
Fermentation processes
Methods of fermentation:
Uses of computers in fermentation technology
The scheme of fermentation process:
Categories of products
I- Production of biomass (cell mass)
Cells of microorganisms as industrial products
1) Baker’s yeast
2) Single-cell protein (SCP)
3) Microbes as insecticides
4) Rhizobium as a fertilizer
II- The use of microorganisms in food
The production of vinegar (acetic acid):
III- Microbial enzymes
1) Amylase
IV- Extracellular polysaccharides
V- Production of metabolites
Screening microorganisms:
V- Primary metabolites
A- Organic acids
1. Citric acid:
2. Gluconic acid:
3. Lactic acid:
B) Vitamins
2. Vitamin B2
C) Amino acids
1. L-Glutamic acid:
2. Lysine:
3 . L-Tryptophan
V) Secondary metabolites
Other commercially produced antibiotics
VI- Bioremediation
VII- Microbial transformation
Steroid biotransformation:
VIII- Energy and biotechnology
1. Ethanol:
IX- Microorganisms and the recovery of metals
1. Accumulation of metals by microorganisms:
2. Biotechnology and mining:
X- Immunological products
1- Vaccines:
a) Production of bacterial vaccines
Quality control of vaccines
2- Monoclonal antibodies
XI- Genetic engineering and biotechnology
Impact of genetics on fermentation technology
Potential of genetic engineering
1- Therapeutic proteins and peptides
2- Chemicals
3- Construction of new microbes
4- Improvement of performance:
5- Protein engineering:
6- Polymerase chain reaction and hybridization techniques:
7- Cell fusion:
8- Modification of macroscopic animals: Transgenic animals
Problems and solution
1- Strain stability
2- Engineering design
XII- Plant biotechnology
Type Applications and use
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Biotechnology 2009 OK Repaired)

Biotechnology 2009 OK Repaired)

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Published by Mostafa Hamza

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Published by: Mostafa Hamza on May 06, 2011
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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