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2.5 - Cell Division

2.5 - Cell Division

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Notes on IB Biology for topic 2.5 Cell Division including stages in the cell cycle, tumours (cancers) are the result of uncontrolled cell division, interphase, prophase, metaphase, anaphase and telophase, how mitosis produces two genetically identical nuclei and that growth, embryonic development, tissue repair and asexual reproduction involve mitosis.
Notes on IB Biology for topic 2.5 Cell Division including stages in the cell cycle, tumours (cancers) are the result of uncontrolled cell division, interphase, prophase, metaphase, anaphase and telophase, how mitosis produces two genetically identical nuclei and that growth, embryonic development, tissue repair and asexual reproduction involve mitosis.

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Published by: IB Screwed on May 06, 2011
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2.5
 –
 Cell Division
2.5.1 -
Outline the stages in the cell cycle, including interphase (G₁, S, G₂), mitosis and
cytokinesis
Interphase is when the DNA replicates. The cell will also replicate its centrosome, which is important for movement of chromosomes. This is split into three stages:
G₁
 is the first stage, and stands for Gap 1. During this time, the cytoplasm is still active, and the cell continues with its normal functions, such as protein synthesis, mitochondria replication or chloroplast replication. There is all the activity of a growing cell.
S
 is the synthesis phase when the DNA is replicated. The mass of the DNA in the cell doubles. All the chromosomes are copied and form chromatids. These remain attached until they divide in mitosis.
G₂
 is the third stage, standing for Gap 2, when there is more growth of the cell, then preparation takes place for cell division.
Mitosis
 then happens. This consists of four stages: prophase, metaphase, anaphase and telophase. The chromosomes are separated and distributed. Cytokinesis is the division of the cytoplasm to form two daughter cells. The cell cycle is then repeated.
 
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2.5.2 - State that tumours (cancers) are the result of uncontrolled cell division and that these can occur in any organic tissue
Tumours, or cancers, are cell mass formed as a result of
uncontrolled cell division
. They can occur in any tissue. In a tumour, the normal repressed state of mitosis is disrupted by mutation to the proto-oncogene. As a result, the cells begin to divide uncontrollably. The proto-oncogene mutates into the oncogene, resulting in the loss of control of cell division. The cells form an
irregular mass of cells
; the tumour. Some cells may break away and form a secondary tumour elsewhere. Eventually they take over the surrounding, healthy cells, which leads to malfunction and death. It is caused by
damage to DNA chromosomes
. The accumulation of mistakes in DNA causes cancer, which is why it is more common in older people. Another cause is damage to the gene that codes for p53, the protein which stops the copying of damaged DNA. The damage to the DNA can result from ionising radiation (X-rays, gamma rays...), some chemicals (tar in tobacco smoke) as well as virus infections. Some factors are also inherited. The development of cancer requires at least two mutations; one of the proto-oncogene; two of the tumour suppressor. Cancer exerts its deleterious effect on the body by
destroying the adjacent tissues
 (such as compressing nerves, eroding blood vessels), replacing normal functioning cells (such as replacing blood forming cells in the bone marrow or the heart muscles so that the heart fails).
 
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2.5.3 - State that interphase is an active period in the life of a cell when many metabolic reactions occur, including protein synthesis, DNA replication and an increase in the number of mitochondria and/or chloroplasts
This is always the
longest part of the cell cycle
. During interphase, the nucleus undergoes many changes. The chromosomes disperse as chromatin and become actively involved in protein synthesis. Copies of the information in particular genes or groups of genes are taken from the chromosomes for use in the cytoplasm. Proteins are assembled in the ribosomes by combining amino acids in sequences dictated by the information from the gene. The synthesis of new organelles takes place in the cytoplasm during interphase. There is intense biochemical activity in the cytoplasm and the organelles, and there is an
accumulation of stored energy
 before nuclear division occurs again. Also, each chromosome replicates into the two identical structures called
chromatids
. These remain attached until they divide in mitosis. In this time, the cell itself will continue to carry out its specialised function. The length of interphase varies between cell types. After cytokinesis, G
1
 occurs: when various proteins are synthesised to allow the cell to specialise. Then, in the S stage, the DNA is replicated. G
2
 is the preparation stage for mitosis. Mitochondria (and chloroplasts in plants) are replicated.
2.5.4 - Describe the events that occur in the four phases of mitosis (prophase, metaphase, anaphase and telophase)
During mitosis, the chromatids are separated and distributed to
two daughter nuclei
. Mitosis is a continuous process with no breaks in it, although we divide it into four stages.
Prophase
The chromosomes become visible as long, thin threads. They shorten and thicken through the process of
supercoiling
. In supercoiling, DNA is combined with histone proteins and non-histone proteins to form the readily stainable chromatin. The genes must be left in

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