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Table Of Contents

Summary
Table 1. Summary of different fuel efficiency aspects
1. Introduction
Table 2. First and second generation biofuels processes
Table 3. Fischer-Tropsch process description for synfuels production
2. Main Facts about Biofuels, GTL and CTL
2.1. Current Production of Biofuels, GTL, and CTL
Table 5. Worldwide biofuels production
2.2. Biofuels, GTL, CTL – What Main Issues Are Involved?
Table 9. Admixing categories for biofuels
3. Non-petroleum Fuel Economics
Table 14. Costs of biofuel plants
Table 15. Bioethanol costs in the EU-25 + Bulgaria, Romania
3.2. Assessment of Economic Competitiveness to Petroleum-based Fuels
3.3. Return on Investment
3.4. Assessment of Energy Efficiency for Each Pathway / Modality
Table 20. Properties of different fuels
Table 21. Energy balance for different crop production
3.5. Assessment of Greenhouse Gas Emissions for Each Pathway / Modality
3.5.1. How much GHG can be avoided during production?
Table 22. CO2 emissions for biofuels
Figure 8. Overall cycle emissions for biodiesel
3.6. Assessment of Land Use and Alternative Crops for Each Pathway / Modality
3.6.1. Bioethanol yield for different crops
3.6.2. Land use
Figure 13. Biofuel yield of selected biodiesel feedstock
3.6.3. Abandoned Land Potential
3.6.4. Global potential for bioethanol production from wasted crop
3.6.5. Area needed to move an automobile a kilometre
Table 23. Area of crop needed to move a car 1 km using bioethanol
3.7. Summary of techno-economic uncertainties
4.1. Brief comparison of government intervention
4.1.1. United States
4.1.2. Europe – The EC Directive on Biofuels 2003
4.1.3. Japan
4.1.4. Australia – The Biofuels Action Plan
4.1.5. Turkey
4.1.6. Sugar policies: opportunity for change
4.2. Brief Assessment of Rules Concerning the End-use of Fuels
4.2.1. Mandatory admixing requirements
4.2.2. Taxation
Table 25. Current EU tax credits for ethanol
4.2.3. Vehicle engines
4.2.4. Import-export restrictions
Figure 18. Ethanol import duties of some countries in 2004
4.2.5. Trade policy to remove barriers to international biofuels trade
5. Current Trends in R&D
5.1. Current trends for “first generation” and syngas-based fuels
Table 26. Other alternative fuels in the stage of research
References
Annex I. Hydrogen as an alternative fuel
Annex II. MixAlco
Table 27. Energy content per litre for various fuels compared to MixAlco
Annex III. Promotion of biofuels by the EU Commission
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Driving Without Petroleum

Driving Without Petroleum

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Published by Jare Aleman

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Published by: Jare Aleman on May 06, 2011
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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05/24/2012

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