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Morphophonology

Morphophonology

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Published by Jemario Gurusinga

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Published by: Jemario Gurusinga on May 06, 2011
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12/16/2012

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Morphophonology
(also
morphophonemics
,
morphonology
) is a branch of linguistics whichstudies, in general, the interaction between morphological and phonetic processes. When amorpheme is attached to a word, it can alter the phonetic environments of other morphemes inthat word. Morphophonemics attempts to describe this process. A language's morphophonemicstructure is generally described with a series of rules which, ideally, can describe everymorphophonemic alternation that takes place in the language.For an example of a morphophonological alternation in English, take the plural suffix. Written as"-s" or "-es" but generally understood to have the underlying representation /z/, the pluralmorpheme alternates between [s], [z], and [z], as in
cats
,
dogs
, and
horses
, respectively. The plural suffix "-s" can also appear to alter phonemes directly surrounding it. As an example, theword "leaf" [lif] takes its plural by alternating the [f] with a [v] and adding the plural suffix, thistime written as "-es" but pronounced as [z]. The result is "leaves" [livz]. Other words like"knife," "fife," and "dwarf" also display this alternation. This may be because the last phonemein these words is actually an archiphoneme /F/ which may be realized as [f] or [v] depending onthe context, even though those phonemes usually contrast. The archiphoneme is unspecified for voice, according to the rule: /F/ -> [voice] / __ [voice]. Because the underlying representationof the English plural suffix is /z/, a voiced consonant, the archiphoneme /F/ is realized as thevoiced allophone [v].
Ba
sic Terminology of Morphology
‡
MORPHEME
is
the
small
e
s
t
m
e
aningful
 
uni
t o
 
languag
e (
any
p
ar 
t o
 
a
wo
rd
th
a
t c
ann
ot beb
oke
n
 
d
ow
n
 
fur 
the
 
in
to
small
e
 
m
e
aningful
p
ar 
t
s,
 
in
c
luding
the who
l
e wo
rd
 
i
t
s
e
lf).
Thewo
rd
'
i
te
ms
' c
an
be b
oke
n
 
d
ow
n
 
in
to two
m
e
aningful
p
ar 
t
s:
'
i
te
m
'
and
the p
lural
 
suffix
'-
s
';
n
e
i
the
o
the
s
e c
an
be b
oke
n
 
d
ow
n
 
in
to
small
e
p
ar 
t
s
th
a
t h
av
e
a
 
m
e
aning.
 The
e
o
e '
i
te
m
'
and
'-
s
'
ar 
e both
m
o
phe
m
e
s.
 ‡
FREE MORPHEME
=
a
 
m
o
phe
m
e th
a
t c
an
 
s
t
and
 
al
o
n
e
as
 
an
 
ind
epe
nd
e
n
t wo
rd
(e
.g.
 '
i
te
m
'
).
 ‡
BOUND MORPHEME
=
a
 
m
o
phe
m
e th
a
t c
ann
ot
s
t
and
 
al
o
n
e
as
 
an
 
ind
epe
nd
e
n
t wo
rd,
b
u
t
mus
t be
a
tt
a
che
d
to
an
othe
 
m
o
phe
m
e/wo
rd
(
affix
e
s,
 
su
ch
as
p
lural
'-
s
'
,
 
ar 
e
al
w
ays
 bo
und
;
oot
s
 
ar 
e
s
o
m
et
im
e
s
bo
und,
e
.g.
the 'kep-' o
'kept' o
the '-ce
iv
e' o
'
ece
iv
e'
.
 ‡
BASE
=
an
e
l
e
m
e
n
t (
fr 
ee o
bo
und,
 
oot
m
o
phe
m
e o
co
m
p
l
e
x
wo
rd)
to wh
i
ch
addi
t
i
o
nal
 
m
o
phe
m
e
s
 
ar 
e
add
e
d.
A
ls
o c
all
e
d
 ‡
STEM
.
A b
as
e c
an
co
nsis
t o
 
a
 
singl
e
oot
m
o
phe
m
e
,
 
as
w
i
th the 'k
ind
' o
'k
indn
e
ss
'
.
B
u
t
a
 b
as
e c
an
 
als
o be
a
wo
rd
th
a
t
i
t
s
e
lf 
co
n
t
ains
 
m
o
e th
an
o
n
e
m
o
phe
m
e
.
Fo
e
xam
p
l
e
,
wec
an
 
us
e the wo
rd
'k
indn
e
ss
'
as
 
a
b
as
e to
o
rm
the wo
rd
'k
indn
e
ss
e
s
'; to
ma
ke'k
indn
e
ss
e
s
'
,
we
add
the p
lural
 
m
o
phe
m
e
,
 
s
pe
ll
e
d
'-e
s
'
in
th
is
c
as
e
,
to the b
as
e'k
indn
e
ss
'
.
 ‡
ROOT
=
a
(
usually
 
fr 
ee
)
 
m
o
phe
m
e
ar 
o
und
wh
i
ch wo
rds
c
an
be b
uil
t
u
p th
o
ug
h the
addi
t
i
o
n
 o
 
affix
e
s.
The
oot
usually
h
as
 
a
 
m
o
e-
s
pec
ifi
c
m
e
aning
th
an
the
affix
e
s
th
a
t
a
tt
a
ch to
i
t
.
 
 
E
x.:
The
oot 'k
ind
' c
an
h
av
e
affix
e
s
 
add
e
d
to
i
t to
o
rm
'k
indly
'
,
'k
indn
e
ss
'
,
'k
ind
e
'
,
 'k
ind
e
s
t'
.
The
oot
is
the
i
te
m
 
y
o
u
h
av
e
l
e
t whe
n
 
y
o
u
 
s
t
ri
p
all
othe
 
m
o
phe
m
e
s
o
ff 
o
 
a
 co
m
p
l
e
x
wo
rd.
I
n
the wo
rd
 
dehumanizing 
,
 
o
e
xam
p
l
e
,
 
if 
 
y
o
u
 
s
t
ri
p o
ff 
 
all
the
affix
e
s
--
-ing, -ize,
and
de-, human
 
is
wh
a
t
y
o
u
h
av
e
l
e
t
.
It c
ann
ot be
divid
e
d
 
fur 
the
 
in
to
m
e
aningful
p
ar 
t
s.
It
is
the
oot o
the wo
rd.
 ‡
AFFIX
=
a
bo
und
 
m
o
phe
m
e wh
i
ch
a
tt
a
che
s
to
a
b
as
e (
oot o
 
s
te
m).
PR
E
FIX
ES
 
a
tt
a
ch tothe
fr 
o
n
t o
 
a
b
as
e;
SU
FFIX
ES
to the e
nd
o
 
a
b
as
e; INFIX
ES
 
ar 
e
ins
e
te
d
 
insid
e o
 
a
 
oot
.
A
n
e
xam
p
l
e o
 
a
p
e
fix
 
is
the '
e-' o
'
ew
ri
te'; o
 
a
 
suffix,
'-
al
' o
'c
ri
t
i
c
al
'
.
 How the wo
rd
co
ns
t
ru
ct
s??
 ‡
INFLECTION
= the p
oce
ss
b
y
wh
i
ch
affix
e
s
co
m
b
in
e w
i
th
oot
s
to
indi
c
a
te b
asi
c
gramma
t
i
c
al
c
a
te
g
o
ri
e
s
 
su
ch
as
te
ns
e o
p
lurali
t
y
(e
.g.
 
in
'c
a
t-
s
'
,
't
al
k-e
d
'
,
'-
s
'
and
'-e
d
'
ar 
e
infl
ect
i
o
nal
 
suffix
e
s).
I
nfl
ect
i
o
n
 
is
 
vi
ewe
d
 
as
the p
oce
ss
o
 
adding
 
v
e
ry
 
g
e
n
e
ral
 
m
e
anings
to e
xis
t
ing
wo
rds,
 
n
ot
as
the c
e
a
t
i
o
n
o
 
n
ew wo
rds.
 ‡
DERIVATION
= the p
oce
ss
b
y
wh
i
ch
affix
e
s
co
m
b
in
e w
i
th
oot
s
to c
e
a
te
n
ew wo
rds
(e
.g.
 
in
'
m
o
d
e
rn
-
iz
e'
,
'
e
ad
-e
'
,
'-
iz
e'
and
'-e
'
ar 
e
d
e
riva
t
i
o
nal
 
suffix
e
s).
De
riva
t
i
o
n
 
is
 
vi
ewe
d
 
as
 
using
e
xis
t
ing
wo
rds
to
ma
ke
n
ew wo
rds.
The
infl
ect
i
o
n
/
d
e
riva
t
i
o
n
 
diff 
e
e
n
ce
is
 
in
c
e
asingly
 
vi
ewe
d
 
as
 
s
h
ad
e
s
o
 
gray
 
ra
the
th
an
 
an
 
a
b
s
o
lu
te bo
undary.
De
riva
t
i
o
n
 
is
 
mu
ch
l
e
ss
 
e
gular,
 
and
the
e
o
e
mu
ch
l
e
ss
p
e
di
ct
a
b
l
e
,
th
an
 
infl
ect
i
o
nal
 
m
o
pho
l
o
gy.
 Fo
e
xam
p
l
e
,
we c
an
p
e
di
ct th
a
t
m
o
s
t
E
nglis
h wo
rds
w
ill
 
o
rm
the
ir 
p
lural
b
y
 
adding
the
affix
<-
s>
o
<-e
s>.
B
u
t how we
d
e
riv
e
n
o
uns
 
fr 
o
m
 
v
e
b
s,
 
o
e
xam
p
l
e
,
 
is
 
l
e
ss
 p
e
di
ct
a
b
l
e
.
Wh
y
 
d
o we
add
<-
al>
to '
e
fus
e'
,
 
ma
k
ing
'
e
fusal
'
,
b
u
t '-
m
e
n
t' to 'p
ay
' to
ma
ke 'p
aym
e
n
t'
?
'P
ayal
'
and
'
e
fus
e
m
e
n
t'
ar 
e
n
ot po
ssi
b
l
e
E
nglis
h wo
rds.
We h
av
e to
d
o
m
o
e
m
e
m
o
rizing
 
in
 
l
e
arning
 
d
e
riva
t
i
o
nal
 
m
o
pho
l
o
gy
th
an
 
in
 
l
e
arning
 
infl
ect
i
o
nal
 
m
o
pho
l
o
gy.
 ‡
CONTENT MORPHEME:
A
m
o
phe
m
e th
a
t h
as
 
a
 
e
la
t
iv
e
ly
 
m
o
e-
s
pec
ifi
c
m
e
aning
th
an
 
a
 
function
 
m
o
phe
m
e;
a
 
m
o
phe
m
e th
a
t
nam
e
s
 
a
co
n
cept/
id
e
a
 
in
o
ur 
 
eco
rd
o
 e
x
pe
ri
e
n
ce o
the wo
rld.
Co
n
te
n
t
m
o
phe
m
e
s
 
fall
 
in
to the c
lass
e
s
o
 
n
o
un,
 
v
e
b
,
 
adj
ect
iv
e
,
 
adv
e
b
.
 ‡
FUNCTION MORPHEME:
A
m
o
phe
m
e th
a
t h
as
 
a
 
e
la
t
iv
e
ly
 
l
e
ss
-
s
pec
ifi
c
m
e
aning
th
an
 
a
 
content
 
m
o
phe
m
e;
a
 
m
o
phe
m
e who
s
e p
rimary
 
m
e
aning
/
fun
ct
i
o
n
 
is
to
signal
 
e
la
t
i
o
ns
h
i
p
s
betwee
n
othe
 
m
o
phe
m
e
s.
F
un
ct
i
o
n
 
m
o
phe
m
e
s
 
g
e
n
e
rally
 
fall
 
in
toc
lass
e
s
 
su
ch
as
 
ar 
t
i
c
l
e
s
('
a
'
,
'the'
),
p
epo
si
t
i
o
ns
('o
'
,
'
a
t'
),
 
auxiliary
 
v
e
b
s
('w
as
e
a
t
ing
'
,
 'h
av
e
sl
ept'
),
etc
.
 ‡
SIMPLE WORD
=
a
wo
rd
co
nsis
t
ing
o
 
a
 
singl
e
m
o
phe
m
e;
a
wo
rd
th
a
t c
ann
ot be
analyz
e
d
 
in
to
small
e
 
m
e
aningful
p
ar 
t
s,
e
.g.
'
i
te
m
'
,
'
fiv
e'
,
'ch
un
k'
,
'the'
.
 
 
‡
COMPLEX WORD
=
a
wo
rd
co
nsis
t
ing
o
 
a
 
oot p
lus
o
n
e o
 
m
o
e
affix
e
s
(e
.g.
'
i
te
ms
'
,
 'w
al
ke
d
'
,
'
dir 
t
y
'
).
 ‡
COMPOUND WORD
=
a
wo
rd
th
a
t
is
 
o
rm
e
d
 
fr 
o
m
two o
 
m
o
e
sim
p
l
e o
co
m
p
l
e
x
wo
rds
 (e
.g.
 
landl
o
rd,
 
e
d
-hot
,
w
ind
ow c
l
e
an
e
 ‡
MORPHOPHONEMICS/ALLOMORPHY
= the
s
t
udy
o
the p
oce
ss
e
s
b
y
wh
i
ch
m
o
phe
m
e
s
 ch
ang
e the
ir 
p
o
nun
c
ia
t
i
o
n
 
in
ce
t
ain
 
si
t
ua
t
i
o
ns.
 ‡
ALLOMORPHS
= the
diff 
e
e
n
t
o
rms
(p
o
nun
c
ia
t
i
o
ns)
o
 
a
 
singl
e
m
o
phe
m
e
.
 
E
x:
the p
lural
 
m
o
phe
m
e
in
 
E
nglis
h
is
{-
z}.
It
s
 
all
o
m
o
ph
s
 
ar 
e /
s
/
,
/
z
/
,
/ @
z
/
.**
A
ls
o
,
the
m
o
phe
m
e'
l
e
af 
' h
as
two
all
o
m
o
ph
s:
'
l
e
af 
'
in
wo
rds
b
uil
t
fr 
o
m
 
i
t (e
.g.
'
l
e
afy
'
)
 
and
'
l
e
av
-'
,
 
o
und
o
nly
 
in
 the p
lural:
'
l
e
av
e
s
'
.
 
Dalam premis telah disebutkan bahwa bunyi-bunyi lingual condong berubah karenalingkungannya. Dengan demikian, perubahan bunyi tersebut bisa berdampak pada duakemungkinan. Apabila perubahan itu tidak sampai membedakan makna ataumengubah identitas fonem, maka bunyi-bunyi tersebut masih merupakan alofon atauvarian bunyi dari fonem yang sama. Dengan kata lain. perubahan itu masih dalamlingkup perubahan fonetis. Tetapi, apabila perubahan bunyi itu sudah sampaiberdampak pada pembedaan makna atau mengubah identitas fonem, maka bunyi-bunyi tersebut merupakan alofon dari fonem yang berbeda. Dengan kata lain,perubahan itu disebut sebagai perubahan fonemis.
 
Jenis-jenis perubahan bunyi tersebut berupa asimilasi, disimilasi, modifikasi vokal,netralisasi, zeroisasi, metatesis, diftongisasi, monoftongisasi, dan anaptiksis,sebagaimana uraian berikut.
 
 A.Asimilasi
 
Asimilasi adalah perubahan bunyi dari dua bunyi yang tidak sama menjadi bunyi yangsama atau yang hampir sama. Hal ini terjadi karena bunyi-bunyi bahasa itu diucapkansecara berurutan sehingga berpotensi untuk saling mempengaruhi atau dipengaruhi.Perhatikan contoh berikut.
 
1.Kata bahasa Inggris top diucapkan [tOp·] dengan [t] apiko-dental. Tetapi, setelahmendapatkan [s] lamino-palatal pada stop, kata tersebut diucapkan [stOp·] dengan [t]juga lamino-palatal. Dengan demikian dapat disim-pulkan bahwa [t] pada [stOp·]disesuaikan atau diasimilaskan artikulasinya dengan [s] yang mendahuluinya sehinggasama-sama lamino-palatal. Jika bunyi yang diasimilasikan terletak sesudah bunyi yangmengasimilasikan disebut asimilasi progresif.2.Kata bahasa Belanda zak ¶kantong· diucapkan [zak·] dengan [k] velar tidak

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