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Decolonization

Decolonization

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Published by Joyce Seo

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Published by: Joyce Seo on May 06, 2011
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05/06/2011

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Decolonization
1.
 
Decolonization = retreat from Empirea.
 
Spurt of new countries that emerged from the formal European colonies after WorldWar IIi.
 
Included places from Asia, South Asia, Africa, and the Middle eastii.
 
End of the Soviet Unions control1.
 
Late 1980s-early 1990s: Eastern Europeb.
 
Results = Third World Countriesi.
 
Developing2.
 
Why did this occur?a.
 
Rising nationalismi.
 
Resentment of Western domination1.
 
Native intelligentsias with European schooling2.
 
Knew western political idealsa.
 
Western educated middle class
contact with Western ideasi.
 
Marxism and liberalismii.
 
Gained through missionaries, schools (civilizingmissions), and to train low level bureaucrats to work inthe mother countrys civil service, and many hadtraveled to Europe to gain an educationb.
 
Knew Western powers could be defeatedi.
 
Japans early successes in WWII1.
 
Defeated Russia  Russo Japanese War2.
 
Then taking some land from Germany (WW1)ii.
 
Bloodbaths of WWI and WWIIc.
 
Loss of European moral authorityi.
 
All this progress had been used to create disaster1.
 
White Mans Burden?ii.
 
Anxiety after WWI and WWIIiii.
 
Rejection of European model of progress seen elsewhered.
 
Europes economic/military weaknessi.
 
Didnt exactly want or had the capability to hold on to their empires1.
 
Resources needed for rebuilding at home2.
 
Left leaning governments elementa.
 
Labor government
the labor party wasnt committed to theidea of empires
more interested in ending Britains coloniesii.
 
US ambivalence about colonies1.
 
Concerned that by seeing as the allies of countries that were oppressingtheir subjectsa.
 
Make them seem less legitimate for allies against the SovietUnion in the Cold War3.
 
General Themes/Problemsa.
 
Not enough resources for everyone
 
Decolonization
i.
 
Population growth1.
 
Famine, environmental degradationa.
 
MASSIVE MIGRATION
creation of mega cities2.
 
Green Revolutiona.
 
New agricultural advances that allowed them to feed morepeopleb.
 
Ethnic/class rivalries resurfacedi.
 
Those who felt that they were oppressed under the Europeans tried to remedythatii.
 
Ethnic lines and borders1.
 
People wanted to fix them but wouldve led to chaosc.
 
Political/economic mismanagementi.
 
A lot of them werent fit to govern1.
 
Hadnt been given the opportunity to govern if they had any experienceat all2.
 
Kleptocracy
created situations where people could profit while thevast majority of the population was in povertyd.
 
Most leaders followed rapid Westernization, industrialization model of developmenti.
 
Usually had state ownership of industriesii.
 
A bias towards an extraction of natural resources1.
 
Legacy of colonialisma.
 
Former powers were able to be in control again
economicinterests that interfered with the country (neo colonialism)2.
 
Loans from International Monetary Fund  World Banka.
 
Help countries gain economic successe.
 
Non aligned movement vs. Cold Wari.
 
Countries saw this as a form of imperialism1.
 
Had to choose sides between the Allies and the Soviet Unionii.
 
Bandung Conference (1955)iii.
 
Political interference, aid (economic, military)1.
 
The Cold War was a way of getting economically successfully4.
 
British Decolonizationa.
 
Indiai.
 
Indian Congress Party and the Muslim league1.
 
Hindu leaders: Gandhi and Nehru2.
 
Muslim leader: Jinnahii.
 
Protests after WWI1.
 
Gandhis boycottsa.
 
Home spun movement, etciii.
 
Post WWII
British elected Labour government1.
 
Began negotiations with Gandhi and Nehruiv.
 
Independence granted (1947)
 
Decolonization
1.
 
Pakistan was also createda.
 
Eastern Pakistan broke off, became Bangladesh2.
 
Democratic governments3.
 
Sectarian violencea.
 
Gandhi assassinated by a Hindu nationalist who was angry at hisdesire to keep India wholei.
 
Gandhi wanted an idealized version of economicsii.
 
Nehru wanted heavy industrialization and was skepticalof neo colonialismb.
 
Egypti.
 
Egypt had autonomy except for Suez pre WWI1.
 
Europe had stepped in and told the leaders what to doa.
 
Seized power in WW1i.
 
Led to rising Egyptian nationalist movementsii.
 
Military leaders seized control (1952)1.
 
Leader: General Nassara.
 
Irritated with the corruption that is present in Egypti.
 
Doing the bidding of the Britishii.
 
Nationalist1.
 
Join forces with the Muslim brotherhood2.
 
Supported pan-Arab nationalisma.
 
All of the Arabs share something that was common and uniteagainst the Europeans who were in the regioni.
 
Was an opportunistii.
 
Saw Israel as a threat to Pan Arab Nationalismb.
 
Attacked Israeli.
 
United a bunch of Arab places to attack Israelii.
 
Israel always winsc.
 
Union between Syria and Egypti.
 
Wanted to be the leader of all Arabs3.
 
Non-aligned politicallya.
 
Suez Canal Crisis  1956i.
 
British was still extremely interested in the Suez canal1.
 
Nasser tried to nationalize canala.
 
Prompted the British, French andIsraelis to invadeii.
 
US and USSR made them back down1.
 
Cold war was beginningiii.
 
Result: Nassers prestige grew4.
 
Began to repress the Muslim brotherhoodsa.
 
Muslim Brotherhood outlawed

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