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Report - Low Cost Surveillance DRDO

Report - Low Cost Surveillance DRDO

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A report we made for a cost effective battlefield surveillance system for a Defence competition. The system uses a Quadropter and several nice doable developments. Ultimately the project was awarded to an old biplane.
A report we made for a cost effective battlefield surveillance system for a Defence competition. The system uses a Quadropter and several nice doable developments. Ultimately the project was awarded to an old biplane.

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Published by: Gadhadar Changalaraya on May 07, 2011
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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05/07/2011

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DDRRDDOOGGOOLLDDEENNJJUUBBIILLEEEECCEELLEEBBRRAATTIIOONN
 Student Competition
“Deployable low cost outdoor surveillance system” 
Abhiram.R.NAnoop.M.KGadhadar.CMadusudhan.C.SSridhar.B.VVikas TavanandiVincent Shanthakumar.S
B.M.S College of Engineering
P.O. Box No. 1908, Bull Temple Road, Bangalore-560019.
 
Project Advisor
Dr.L.RavikumarDepartment of Mechanical EngineeringB.M.S College of Engineering, Bangalore.
 
 
 Page 2DRDO PROJECT REPORT
Abstract
An airborne surveillance system would be successful if it is light-weight, has a high maneuverability,has stealth and if it could encrypt transmissions to and from the base station. Our design for the systemtries to optimize these factors.We will be using a quad-rotor design for our aircraft. The advantage of a quad rotor over aconventional winged plane is that it has a very high maneuverability. It can hover over a place andmake an observation. By simply changing the rotation speed of the motors, we can control thedirection of motion of the system. Aluminum will be used for the legs and the central plate as it is easyto fabricate. In order to enable a higher payload we will be using Fiber glass for the arms of the vehicleas it is lighter than aluminum. The fiber glass components can be easily obtained according to ourdesign specifications from local manufacturers.Since the system will be of very small dimensions (about 50 cm X 50 cm) it will be hardly registeredon radar. The only possible method of detection would be from the sound produced by the craft. Thesound is emitted due to the mechanical vibrations of the system. For this design of the vehicle the armsexperience maximum vibration. Fiber-glass arms will produce fewer vibrations than metal arms as itselasticity is much smaller. The entire aircraft will be painted blue so that it will be hard to discern by acasual observer.A color video camera with an in-built IR-emitter/detector will be our sensor. The IR camera can beused to take black and white images at night time. The camera has an in-built transmitter. The camerahas an aperture of 45 Degrees and will be placed at an angle to the horizontal. This will enable us torecognize objects more easily. In this position we will be able to see the vertical dimensions of theobjects apart from their top view. All transmissions will use fast hopping spread spectrum modulationand this will guarantee a secure line. The transmitter will operate in the 2.4 GHz spectrum. The dataobtained from the camera will be transmitted over the secure link to the base station. In the basestation, the computer will select the best frame among a series of images and will apply featuredetection techniques. These feature points are then compared with those in the database to detectobject of interest. This will help us to highlight all the objects that are of human-size.Our craft will also have the MAX2740 G.P.S module. This will help us identify the co-ordinates of the craft at all times. The GPS signals will be sent over the secure line in the audio channel of thevideo data line. The co-ordinates of the system will be used in Google Earth to get a terrain mappingof the region. The data from the image processing operations will provide the possible location of theHuman sized objects. These two data streams will be combined to give a single image highlighting thepositions of the objects along with their possible co-ordinates.The power system for all these components will be a Lithium-Polymer battery. This battery waschosen because of its capability to support a large current requirement.Almost all the components that we will be using for the project can be procured locally. None of thecomponents have any kind of import restrictions. Since the components can be sourced locally, theAircraft can be built and serviced at a low cost.
 
 Page 3DRDO PROJECT REPORT
Table of Contents
1.
 
INTRODUCTION .............................................................................................................. 4
 
2.
 
VEHICLE CONCEPTUAL DESIGN ................................................................................. 4
 
3.
 
QUADROTOR .................................................................................................................. 5
 
3.1
 
ANALYSIS
 
AND
 
COMPONENT
 
SELECTION ...................................................................... 5
 
3.1.1.
 
Body or Structure .............................................................................................................................. 6 
 
3.1.2.
 
Selection of Motor ............................................................................................................................. 6 
 
3.1.3.
 
Motors ................................................................................................................................................ 7 
 
3.1.4.
 
Propellers .......................................................................................................................................... 7 
 
3.1.5.
 
Battery ............................................................................................................................................... 7 
 
3.2
 
CONTROL
 
SYSTEM
 
DESIGN
 
AND
 
COMMUNICATION ...................................................... 9
 
3.2.1.
 
AVR microcontroller (ATmega 16) .................................................................................................... 9 
 
3.2.2.
 
RF Communication ............................................................................................................................ 9 
 
3.2.3.
 
The control circuit details ................................................................................................................. 10 
 
3.2.4.
 
Camera ............................................................................................................................................ 12 
 
3.2.5.
 
GPS/ GLONASS /IRNSS ................................................................................................................ 13 
 
3.3
 
VIDEO
 
ANALYSIS ............................................................................................................. 14
 
4.
 
CONCLUSION ............................................................................................................... 15
 
5.
 
REFERENCES & BIBLIOGRAPHY ............................................................................... 16
 

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