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Psychology 101 INTELLIGENCE

Psychology 101 INTELLIGENCE

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Published by AEDRIELYN PICHAY

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Published by: AEDRIELYN PICHAY on May 08, 2011
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05/16/2013

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 Psychology 101 -Introduction toPsychology 
 
Intelligence
 
 Intelligence encompasses a number of mental abilities such as reasoning, planning andproblem-solving. The topic of intelligence is one of the biggest and most debated in psychology.Learn more about some of the many theories of intelligence, the history of intelligence testingand much more.
 
THEORIES OF INTELLIGENCE
While intelligence is one of the most talked about subjects within psychology, there is no standarddefinition of what exactly constitutes 'intelligence.' Some researchers have suggested that intelligence is asingle, general ability, while other believe that intelligence encompasses a range of aptitudes, skills and talents.The following are some of the major theories of intelligence that have emerged during the last 100 years.
Charles Spearman - General Intelligence:British psychologist Charles Spearman (1863-1945) described a concept hereferred to as general intelligence, or the g factor. After using a technique knownas factor analysis to to examine a number of mental aptitude tests, Spearmanconcluded that scores on these tests were remarkably similar. People whoperformed well on one cognitive test tended to perform well on other tests, whilethose who scored badly on one test tended to score badly on other. He concludedthat intelligence is general cognitive ability that could be measured andnumerically expressed (Spearman, 1904).Louis L. Thurstone - Primary Mental Abilities:Psychologist Louis L. Thurstone (1887-1955) offered a differing theory of intelligence. Instead of viewing intelligence as a single, general ability,Thurstone's theory focused on seven different "primary mental abilities"(Thurstone, 1938). The abilities that he described were:
y
 
V
erbal comprehension
y
 
R
easoning
y
 
Perceptual speed
y
 
N
umerical ability
y
 
W
ord fluency
y
 
Associative memory
y
 
Spatial visualizationHoward Gardner - Multiple Intelligences:One of the more recent ideas to emerge is Howard Gardner's theory of multiple
 
intelligences. Instead of focusing on the analysis of test scores, Gardner 
 
proposed that numerical expressions of human intelligence are not a full andaccurate depiction of people's abilities. His theory describes eight distinct

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