TRADITIONAL MODEL OFPUBLIC ADMINISTRATION
Public administration as both theory and practice began in the latenineteenth centuryand lasted in most Western countries largely unchanged until the last quarter of the twentieth century.
The beginning of the traditional model is best seen in mid-nineteenth centuryBritain.
recommendedtheabolition of patronage and the substitution of recruitment by opencompetitive examinationsunder the supervision of a centralexamining board.
) was passed whichestablished a bipartisan
theholding of competitive examinations for all applicants to theclassified service