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By dadda

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11/26/2013

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SOMESCHEMESFORPARALLELMULTIPLIERS
(*)
L.DADDA
(U)
ThepossibilityofcombinationalswitchingnetwQ1'ksobtainiftgthejwoductoftwobinarynumbersisinvestigated.
Some
schemesareproposed,
all
basedontheuseofpelt'lulelcounters,
i.«.
combinationalswitchingnetworkswhichpro-duce
at
theoutputsincodifiedbinaryformthenumberofones~presentattheinputs.Theproposedschemesobtainthejwoduct
111
twosteps:
tu
firstobtains
two
numberswhosesumequalstheproduct,withoutcarrypr(Jpagation;thesecondstepobtainstile
product
in
II
carrypropagatingadder.ThepracticalimplementationofparallelcountersisalsocOfl$idered.
1.-INTRODUCTION.
Therealizationof
a
parallelmultiplierlordigitalcomputershasbeenconsidered
ina
recentpaperbyC.S.WallaCe
(1)
whoproposedatreeofpseudo-adders[i.e.,adderswithoutcarrypropagation)producingtwonumbers,whosesumequalstheproduct.Thissumcan
be
obtainedbyapplyingthetwonumberstoacarry-propagatingadder.
The
purposeofthisnoteistopresentsomeschemestorparallelmultipliers,basedonadifferentprincipleand
having
someadvantagesovertheonebyWallace.
Also
someoftheproposedschemes
will
obtain
two
num-berswhosesumequalstheproduct.
2.-THEMULTIPLIERSCHEME,BASEDONPARALLELCOllNTERS.
Thenewschemesarebasedontheuseoflogicalblocksthat
we
will
call
f
parallel
(1'1,
m)
counters»:thesearecombinationalnetworkswith
m
outputsand
n
(~:l"')
inputs.Themoutputs,consideredasabinarynumber,codify
the
numberof•ones
0
presentattheinputs.In
a
subsequentparagraphsomeimplementationsofsuchparallelcounters
will
beillustrated.Considernowtheprocessofmultiplicationoftwobinarynumbers,eachcomposedof
n
bit,asbeenbasedonobtainingthesumof
If
summands.Thesesummandsareobtained,inthesimplestschemes,byshiftingleftthemultiplicandby
1,2,
3,
(n-
1.)
places.andmultiplyingitbythecorrespondingbitsofthemultiplier.In
this
case,
v
=
n.
Asitiswellknown,thenumberofsummandscanbemadelessthan
n
byusingsomesimplemultiplesofthemultiplicand,onthebasisoftwoormoremultiplierdigits
(1).
(*)
ThispaperhMbeenpresentedatthe.CoJloquesur1'1\1-
gl!brede
Doole',
Grenoble,
II·I
7january
J
96j.
(**)
1..
DADDA,lstitutodiElettTot~lca
ed
EleVronic;adel
Po1itecnlcodiMilano.
(I)
C.S.
WAr.LA.CE:
A
suggestJonlor
a
/lUtmulUpUu.••
IEEE
Trana.
onElectronicComputers.,
vol.
EC·I3,
pp.
I~-;-17,
fe-
bi-uary
[964.
Thereductionofthenumber.ofsummandswillnot
be
consideredhere.Thecase(",..
n)
willbethereforeas-sumed,astheschemeproposed
will
workalsoforareducednumberofsummands.Consider.nowtheeaseoftwopositivefactors.Toobtaintheproduct.firstrepresent
the
summands
by
the
usual
matrix
as
indicatedinupperportion
fig.
I;
inthefigure,
n
=
ra),
Inthesamefigure,thesignificantbits
are
.............
.............
.
.
..
..
.
..
,.
.
...........•............•..........
.
.
......•.....
..............
..............
•...........
Pig.
I.-
Multiplication
(12
x
12
bit)
tlu'oUlhaddition,Inasinglestage,
usJog
a
parallel
counter
f(1f
each
CCJlUmD.
Carriesarepropagatedthroll8hthe
counters.
representedbydots:moreover,
bits
attheleftandattheright
01
thesignificantonesaresupposedto
be
zeros.The
process
ofmultiplication
is
as
follows,The
single
bit
in
column
i
=
;
representstheleastSignificantbitoftheproduct,
so
itdoesnotrequire
any
transformation.Thetwobits
in
column
i
=
2
areappliedtoa
(2,2)
counter:theleastsi.gn.ifacant
of
thetwooutputsrepre-sentsthesecondleastsignificantbitoftheproduct,and
is
recordedin
fig.
I
on
the
lastline,
i
=
2;
themostsignificantoutputrepresents
a
carry.andisthereforerecorded
in
column
i
=
3.
Incolumn
3
we
have
4
bit:threeofthembelongtotheoriginalmatrix,
the
fourth
is
thecarryjustmentioned.Thisfourbita.willbeappliedtoa
(4.3)
counter,whosethreeoutputs'
will
berecorded:incolumn3
(the
leastsignificant,representingthethirdleastsignificantbitoftheproduct)incolumn..andincolumn
5
(themostsignificant),respectively.Thefollowingcolumnsaretreated
in
a
similarway,USingsuitablecounters.Theinputsofeachcounter
are
in
part
thebitsofthecorrespondingcolumnofthesummandsmatrix,in
part
carrybitsproducedbythecountersofthepreceedingcolumns.Infig.
I.
carriesproducedbyagivencounterareconnectedby
a
diagonalsegment.Thesetoftheleastsignificantbitsproduced
by
allcountersrepresentstheresult.Theaboveschemeis
the
mostelementaryonethatcanbe
devised.However,
itsuffersof
a
seriousdisad-vantage,namelythatofcarrypropagationdelaythroughthecounters.
 
L.o.dda-SomeScheme,forParallelMultipliers
In
fact,counterswithalargenumberofinputs
are
in
generalimplementedbycomplicatedcircuits,havingthereforeasubstantialinherentdelay.
If
onewishestominimizetheeffectsofsuch
delay,
adifferentschemeshould
be
adopted.
This
schemeis
based
onthefollowingremark.Consider
the
problemofobtainingtheproduct
as
dividedintwo
steps.
In
thefirst
step,obtainfromtheoriginal
setofaddends
asetoftwonumbers,whosesumequalstheproduct.Thesecondstepobtainstheproduct
in
acarry-propag-atingadder.
Carry
propagationcannotbeavoided:itissimplyconfined
to
tbissecondstep,where
it
can
be
accomplishedbyspecial,fastcircuits.Letusnowdescribetheaboveprocesswithreferencetofig.
2,
thatrepresentsa
12
X
12
product.Thefirststepoftheprocessconsistsofcascadedstages(intheexample.
3
stages):thefirststagetrans-
c
··1'
...
""
.
.
'
"
..
............
"..........$
............
11
.............
..
..
..
...
..
...
.
•....•.....
~
..............
~~.iIII..,'
t
"0
;.o({1'"~?:.
r:
.....®
///~/:/.I'/::
0::
l~
®
='/.1'.1'/////.1'/::::::0::.:-.~
D
Fig.
2.-
Amultiplier~heme,obtainingtwonumbers,
whoae
lIumequu
the
productof
l:Z
X12
bit,
throullhthreeltage!,
using
II
parallelcounterf~elida
IItage
and
for
each
collllllll.
Cllrdtsare
not
propagated.
forms
the
matrix
A
into
the
matrix
B;
the
second
stagematrix
B
intoC.and
so
on,untila
matrix,
composedof
two
rowsonly,isobtained:thesetworowsrepresentthenumbersthat,summed
in
acarrypropagatingadder,producetheresult.Inthefirststage,we
begin
bytranscribingthesinglesignificantbitincolumn
i
=
I
(intherightuppercorner)frommatrix
A
intomatrix
B.
Thesame
is
doneforcolumn
i
=
2,
composed
of
twosignificantbitsonly.Thethreebitsofcolumn
i
=
3.areappliedtoa
(3.2)
counter:theleastSignificant.
01
thetwooutputbits,isrecordedin
B.
i""
;
themostsignificantbit
is
recor-dedin
B,
i
=
4.
inthesecond
row.
Which
row
ischosenforthissecondbit
is
inessential,provided
it
isrecordedincolumn
i
=
4;
therulefollowedinFig.
2
isconvenientbecauseitproducesacompactmatrix
B.
The
i
=
4
columnhas
4
bit,andcorrespondingly,theparallelcountermusthave
m
=
3
outputs;theleastsignificantbitwillberecordedin
B,
(i,
k)
=
3,1);
thenextbitin
B.
(i.
k)
=-
(4,2);
the
third.
mostsigni-ficanthitin
B.
(i,li)
=
(S.3).
Notethatinfig.
2
matrix
B.
thediagonalsegment,joiningtogethertheabovethreebits.signifiesthatthesebitsaretheoutputsoftheparallelcounterledbythecolumnjustabovetheleastsignificantbit
(k
=
).
Theruleisfollowedinallsimilarcases..Theprocessdescribedaboveforcolumn
i
=
3and
i
=
4isrepeatedforthesubsequentcolumns.usingeachtimeanappropriateparallelcounter.Thematrix
B,
thusobtainedfrom
A,
has
fourrows;itisthentransformedintomatrixC
by
thesameprocess.MatrixChas3rows.
so
it
istransformedintomatrix
D,
atwo-row
matrix;thetworowsrepresent
the
resultoftheprocess.Theaboveprocesscan
be
justifiedasfollows.Withreference
to
theoriginalmatrix
A,
it
can
be
said
thattheproductisequivalenttothesumofallthebits
b"k
inthesamematrix,eachmultipliedby
a
weight.
2,-1;
Ii:2q--}
P
=
Ik
E,b,,1t
2,-
1
Thecontributionto
P
ofeachcolumn
i,
is:
"
"
Pi
=
Zitb
i
t
2
i-
1
=
2'-1
Zitbi,lt
t
Thissamecontribution
is
representedinmatrix
B
by
~
theoutput
of
thecounter.
E
It
b;.~,
whoseleastsignificant
bitisincolumn
i,
andthereforehasweight
2H.
Thematrix
B,
therefore,isequivalenttomatrix
A
asfarastheevaluationoftheproductisconcerned.Matrices
C
and
D
arealso
equivalent
to
A,
having
beenobtainedfromBand
C
respectivelybythesametransformation.Theproceduredescribedcan
be
applied
to
factorswitharbitraryvalueof
n.
ontheassumptionthatparallelcountershavingasuitablenumberofinputsareavailable.Thenumberofstagesrequired
is
easilydetermined,andappearsasintable
1.
T
ABI.E
I.-
Numher.(;/stages,.~qui,.(d
lor
aparallel
".ullipli~.
(tis,
ftiI".bu
0/
bitsthe
multipUer)
win!:parallelc0f4mmwho..
t
limitationonIhe_mite·,
0/
1np.us.
Number
ofbitsinthe
multiplier
34
5
NumberofIItales
3
3<
no=;;
7
7<
n~
IS
1,
<
n~
3~
3l
<
n.::
64
3.-
THE
USE
OF
COUNTERS
WITHA
LIMITED
NUMBER
OFINPUTS;
(2.2)
AND(3,2)COUNTERS.
Counterswithalargenumber
of
inputsaredifficultto
realize,
Itisthereforeimportanttoseehowthemethodcould
be
appliedusingcounterswith
a
limitednumberofinputs.
#
-
.It
isapparentthatthemethodcan
be
modifiedasfollows.
If
thenumberofsignificantbitsinacolumnofthematrixto
be
transformed(initiallymatrix
Al
is
greaterthanthenumber
#.
ofinputstotheavailablecounters,dividethebitsingroups,eachhavingatmost
n
1
bits.Eachgroupcanthenbeappliedtothecounter'sinputs,e~counterprovidingthusforeachgroupthenumberofonescodedinbinary.Suchcountsareplacedinthe
B
matrix.allwiththe
1
l
I
I
I
)
I
 
L.Dadda-SomeSchemesforParaDelMUltipliers
leastsignificantbit
in
column
i,
andusingasmanyrowsasnecessary.Thesameholdsforthesubsequenttransformations,untila
a-row
matrix
is
obtained.Themostimportantremarkontheaboveprocedureisthat
the
numberofstagesnecessarywillingeneral
be
greaterthanthatrequiredwithunrestrictedcounterinputs.Onemight,inthisconnection,lookfortheminimumnumber
of
inputs,that
can
stillbeusedfortheimple-mentationofthemethod.Thisminimumnumberisofcourse
two;
(2,2)
counters
can
beusedasshown
in
theexamplesinFig.
3,
andFig.
4,
representingthecases
n
=
3
and
n
=
4
respect-ively.
.I
t
i
A
·.1
oo.
...
eD
.B
~....::
.
Fig.3.-Amultiplierstructure,obtainingtwonumbers,who!!esumequalstheproductof3x3bit,throughthe
U5I!
of
2
Input/2output
paxallel
counters.
Theexample
n
=
3
worksasfollows.Columns
i...
I
and
i
=
2arereproducedin
B.
Column
i
=
3iscomposedof
3
bit:therefore2ofthemare
appliedto
a(2,2)counter,whoseoutputsarereproducedin'
B,
columns
oj
=
and
i
=
4
respectively<inthefigure.theyareconnectedtogetherbyasegment);the3rdbitissimplyreproducedin
B;
i
=
3.
s
{
"
....
IJ
....
.
.
..
0
13
!-'"///.:
:.-'
®
.////.::
.
c
/
0
0
:,.--//.:::"
I
@
R
)"//.
.....
.....
Fig..-Sameasfl.g.3,fortheproduct
of
xbit.
Columns..has
2
bit,ascolumn2:neverthelessitistransformedbya
(2,2)
counter,
to
producethebitsincolumns4and5of
B,
becauseinB,column
i
=..
thereisalreadythecarryfromcolumn3.Thesinglebitincolumn5issimplyreproduced.Thecase
n
=..
iscompletelyanalogous.Consideringcaseswithlarger
n,
itcan
be
foundthatthenumberofnecessarystages,when'using
(2,2)
counters,is2"-'.Thismeansthat,forpraticalvaluesof
n
(e.g.,
11
=
30),thenumberofstageswouldbecomeveryla.rgeandconsequentlythetotaldelaywouldbecometoogreat.Aswewillseeinthefollowing,thenumberofstagesisdrasticallyreducedifcounterswith
n
=
3ormore
are
used.Ontheotherhand.itmustbenotedthatcoun-terswith
n
largerthan2arenotdifficulttoimplement.Thisiscertainlythecasefor
n
=
3,thatisafulladdernetwork.Fig.5representsthemultiplicationprocessforthecase
11
=
12
(like
tig.
2),
using
(3,2)
countersand.whennecessary,
also
some
(2,2)
counters.
It
canbeseenthatthetotalnumberofstagesrequiredis
5
(insteadof
3,
,
i~__~__
-L~__
-L__~
..............
.••.........
.
.....•••......••.•.....
..............
.....••..•..
.............
...............•........
l1li-..."
.............
"....r;"\
__~"~~
--'----'----'-----'\!I
~///////////////////
:.
:-"//////
....
/////
/
.
:--/////
.
:.-"//0
____-L--L--~'--L-~--~~
//////
....
//
....
//////////.:
.
.
.
:."/////
.....
////
.
..............
------~--~'--~I---.-~-~GD
:?///?///////......//......:••:
0
••;-0/.////••
______-L__-L_
_LI__
-L--~---0
.r"....../~///////////:.:•:.
1~
·~!_·_·_·_·~_~__~
GD
/
.......
//
............
//////::.:.:
..
:.
c
D
F
Pig.
s.-sameas
ag.
2,
through
the
UR
of
3or
l·jIlPUt!~
outputs
parallel
counters.which
representstheabsolute
nuaunum:
see
fig.
2).The
:processis
carriedout
in
tig.
5,
with
the
followingrules.Columns
I
and2,aresimplyreproducedin
B
(andinallfollowingmatrices).Column3,having3bit.istransformedin
B
into2bit:
the
leastsignificantincolumn3,themostsignificant
in
column..(second.row).(Theyareconnectedbyadiagonalsegment,asusedpreviously).Column4
has
4bit:threeofthemaretransformedbya(3,2)counter,thefourth'
is
simplyreproducedin
B
(4,3)·
Column5has5bit:threeofthemaretransformedbya(3,2)counter,thelasttwobya(2,2)counter:thelatter'soutputs(in
B,
(5.3)and
B,
(6,4),respectively)arejoinedbyadiagonalsegmentcrossedbyabartosignifythattheyareoutputsofa(2,2)counter.Similarrulesareappliedtoallthefollowingcolumns.throughthelastcolumn(23rd)which
has
asinglebit.Thematrix
B
obtained
by
theapplicationofthepro-cess,can
be
shownto
be
equivalentto
A,
asfarastheevaluationoftheproductisconcerned.Thesameprocesscan
be
usedtoobtainCfrom
B,
DfromC,Efrom
D
and
F
fromE.
F
hastworows,whosesumrepresentstheproduct.Someremarkscan
be
madeaboutthedescribedprocess,whichwasbasedon(3,2)counters.
a)
thenumber
s
ofstagescan
be
detenninedasfollows.
It
can
be
seenthatthelasta-rowmatrixcan
be
derivedby
a.
3-rowmatrix.This
is
trueregardlessofthe
type
ofcountersused.A3-rowmatrixcanbederivedfroma4-rowmatrix:infact,threeofthebitsofeachcolumncanbereducedtotwo,bya(3,2)counter:thefourthbitissimplyreproduced.Thisisobtainedinthe
(s-
r)
t
h
stage.
.__-
~
.
""---.-
-~~~~~~~~~~~~-~~~-
..
~-'
[
:1
j!
I
I
i
I
i.
i
I
[:
1
I.'
!
:~.
-

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