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Bio Telemetry

Bio Telemetry

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Published by Manoj Kumar

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Published by: Manoj Kumar on May 08, 2011
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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09/24/2013

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BIOTELEMETRY ABSTRACT
Biotelemetry is a vital constituent in the field of medical sciences. It entailsremote measurement of biological parameters. Transmission of  physiological data from point of generation to the point of reception cantake many forms.Biotelemetry, using wireless diagnosis, can monitor electronically thesymptoms and movements of patients. This development has opened upavenues for medical diagnosis and treatment.It enables monitoring of activity levels in patients suffering from heart troubles, asthma, pain, Alzheimer’s disease, mood disorders,cardiovascular problems, accidents, etc. A patient’s response and reactionto drugs can also be investigated for treatment.Radio telemetry transmits biological data using various radio transmissiontechniques. No wires are required to be attached to the patient’s body. The patient just carries a bracelet-sized transmitter that enables monitoring of the patients symptoms.Carrier modulation, physiological data encoding, frequency and timedivision multiplexing blocking oscillator or Endoradiosonde, receivers and antennas for Biotelemetry, power sources, and transcutaneous power transfer are discussed in this paper.
INTRODUCTIONBiotelemetry is a vital constituent in the field of medical sciences. It entailsremote measurement of biological parameters. Transmission of physiological data from point of generation to the point of reception cantake many forms.Biotelemetry, using wireless diagnosis, can monitor electronically thesymptoms and movements of patients. This development has opened upavenues for medical diagnosis and treatment.It enables monitoring of activity levels in patients suffering from hearttroubles, asthma, pain, Alzheimer’s disease, mood disorders,cardiovascular problems, accidents, etc. A patient’s response and reactionto drugs can also be investigated for treatment.Radio telemetry transmits biological data using various radio transmissiontechniques. No wires are required to be attached to the patient’s body. Thepatient just carries a bracelet-sized transmitter that enables monitoring of the patients symptoms.Carrier modulation, physiological data encoding, frequency and timedivision multiplexing blocking oscillator or Endoradiosonde, receivers andantennas for Biotelemetry, power sources, and transcutaneous powertransfer are discussed in this paper.EVOLUTION OF BIOTELEMETRYTechnology Who When HowBy wireS.R.Winters1921Electrode wires toaGalvanometer
 
EndroradiosondeStuartMackay1950sTransistorReadilyAvailableBlockingoscillatorMultiplexedPhysiologicsignalsManyInvestigators1970sFDMFMencodingMultiplexedPhysiologicSignals.ManyInvestigators1970’stoPresentTDMPIM, PCMEncoding.MagneticallyCoupledTranscutaneousData Transfer.ManyInvestigations1980's toPresentTDMPDM andPCMEncoding.Nexttechnologies ?Present andfuturePortablyTDMPCM,SpreadSpectrum HISTORY OF BIOTELEMETRYTHE FIRST WILDLIFE TRANSMITTERAbove ground range: 25 yardsBelow ground range: 8 yardsTransmitter breaking through the skinBatteries last 161 daysFURTHER DEVELOPMENT NEEDEDCan’t be used in any critters smaller than a woodchuckRange of 18-25 yards not adequate for some species, or inaccessiblelocationsTransmitter could not be recovered after it diedEXTERNAL TRANSMITTERStudied porcupines in MinnesotaUsed miniature transmittersHome made harnessesModified dog harnesses for immatureAllowed them to make general statements about porcupinesTRANSMITTEROne-transistor, crystal-controlled oscillator
 
Copper or aluminum10 grams (without battery)RECEIVERPortable, battery-operated10 lbs, including batteriesBattery 9” x 6” x 5” Commercial receivers equal or better, but not portableFIELD USEPortable receiverUsing the “null” Tracking a moving animalTracking a stationary animalAccuracyIMPROVEMENTSEfficiency improvesEncapsulation for effective, weatherproof Less prone to damage from the animalsLighter weight batteriesTransmitter, collars, etc. become commercially availableNEW VARIATIONSActivity indicatorDeath indicatorUrination indicatorAutomatic tracking systemDEATH INDICATOR “Dead animals are hard to find” Penned vs. free-roaming animalsGrizzly bear transmitterAUTOMATIC TRACKING SYSTEMSOutputs of receivers linked to “visual indicator tubes” Records of signals made on 16 mm filmFilm developed, data read and tabulated

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