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afroargentinos, 1850-1900

afroargentinos, 1850-1900

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Race versus Class Association: The Afro-Argentines of Buenos Aires, 1850-1900Author(s): George Reid AndrewsSource:
Journal of Latin American Studies,
Vol. 11, No. 1 (May, 1979), pp. 19-39Published by: Cambridge University PressStable URL:
Accessed: 09/11/2009 12:08
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i.Lat.Amer. Stud.
II,
I,I9-39PrintedinGreatBritain
19
oo22-2I6X/79/JLAS-IIIO$02.00
t
1979CambridgeUniversityPress
RaceVersus ClassAssociation:theAfro-Argentinesof
BuenosAires,
I850-I900*
byGEORGE REIDANDREWSFundamental o anunderstandingf thecomplexrelationshipsbetweenraceandsocialclassn Latin Americasanunderstandingftheprocessbywhich the castesocietiesofthe colonialandearlynationalperiodsweregraduallytransformednto the classsocietiesofthe twentiethcentury.1DuringtheI85osa number of South Americannations struck downthelastvestigesoftheirslaveregimesandthe colonialRegimendecastas,legislationdesignedtodividesocietyntoracialcastesarrangedn a well-definedhierarchy.2Amongthese countrieswereArgentina,Colombia,Ecuador,Peru,Uruguay,andVenezuela.Bolivia,Brazil,andParaguaydelayeduntillater in thecentury.Thesedevelopmentseem at firstglanceto havepavedthewayfor theintegrationf thenon-whitesasfully-fledgedparticipantsn the continent'snewlyformedclasssocieties,as severalauthorswritingon the Afro-LatinAmericanshaveconcluded.3Otherobservers re
*
Researchfor thisarticle wassupported by grantsfromtheSocialScienceResearchCouncilandtheFulbright-Hays Programofthe U.S.DepartmentofHealth,EducationandWelfare.Responsibilityforanystatements madehereinliessolelywiththeauthor.1By'caste' is understood 'anendogamousandhereditarysubdivisionofanethnicunitoccupyingapositionofsuperiorand inferiorrank orsocialesteem incomparisonwithothersuchsubdivisions.A.L.Kroeber,quotedinGeraldD.Berreman,'TheConceptofCaste',in David L. Sills(ed.),InternationalEncyclopedia oftheSocialSciences(NewYork,I968),
II,
333.By'class'isunderstood asocialgroupwhosemembersshare acombinationofobjectives(e.g.education,income,politicalor socialinfluence),andattitudinal(perceptionsofeachother and themselves aspartofthesameclass,commonlyheldideasconcerningclass interestsandgoals)characteristics,andwhosemembers areperceivedbythe rest ofthesocietyasbelongingtothat class.SeeSeymourM.Lipset,'SocialClass',inSills, xv,296-3I5,particularlypp.
3o0-I2.
Readers arefurtherreferredtoOliverC.Cox,Caste,Class and Race(NewYork,1947and
I959).
2
For discussions oftheRegimen,seeLeslie B.Rout,Jr,TheAfricanExperienceinSpanishAmerica(Cambridge, 1976), pp.
I26-60;
MagnusM6rner,RaceMixture in theHistoryofLatinAmerica(Boston,1967),pp.53-75.
3
See,forexample,GonzaloAguirreBeltran,'TheIntegrationoftheNegrointotheNationalSocietyof Mexico',and CarlosRama,'ThePassingoftheAfro-UruguayanfromCasteSocietyintoClassSociety',both inMagnusM6rner(ed.),RaceandClass inLatini.Lat.Amer. Stud.
II,
I,I9-39PrintedinGreatBritain
19
oo22-2I6X/79/JLAS-IIIO$02.00
t
1979CambridgeUniversityPress
RaceVersus ClassAssociation:theAfro-Argentinesof
BuenosAires,
I850-I900*
byGEORGE REIDANDREWSFundamental o anunderstandingf thecomplexrelationshipsbetweenraceandsocialclassn Latin Americasanunderstandingftheprocessbywhich the castesocietiesofthe colonialandearlynationalperiodsweregraduallytransformednto the classsocietiesofthe twentiethcentury.1DuringtheI85osa number of South Americannations struck downthelastvestigesoftheirslaveregimesandthe colonialRegimendecastas,legislationdesignedtodividesocietyntoracialcastesarrangedn a well-definedhierarchy.2Amongthese countrieswereArgentina,Colombia,Ecuador,Peru,Uruguay,andVenezuela.Bolivia,Brazil,andParaguaydelayeduntillater in thecentury.Thesedevelopmentseem at firstglanceto havepavedthewayfor theintegrationf thenon-whitesasfully-fledgedparticipantsn the continent'snewlyformedclasssocieties,as severalauthorswritingon the Afro-LatinAmericanshaveconcluded.3Otherobservers re
*
Researchfor thisarticle wassupported by grantsfromtheSocialScienceResearchCouncilandtheFulbright-Hays Programofthe U.S.DepartmentofHealth,EducationandWelfare.Responsibilityforanystatements madehereinliessolelywiththeauthor.1By'caste' is understood 'anendogamousandhereditarysubdivisionofanethnicunitoccupyingapositionofsuperiorand inferiorrank orsocialesteem incomparisonwithothersuchsubdivisions.A.L.Kroeber,quotedinGeraldD.Berreman,'TheConceptofCaste',in David L. Sills(ed.),InternationalEncyclopedia oftheSocialSciences(NewYork,I968),
II,
333.By'class'isunderstood asocialgroupwhosemembersshare acombinationofobjectives(e.g.education,income,politicalor socialinfluence),andattitudinal(perceptionsofeachother and themselves aspartofthesameclass,commonlyheldideasconcerningclass interestsandgoals)characteristics,andwhosemembers areperceivedbythe rest ofthesocietyasbelongingtothat class.SeeSeymourM.Lipset,'SocialClass',inSills, xv,296-3I5,particularlypp.
3o0-I2.
Readers arefurtherreferredtoOliverC.Cox,Caste,Class and Race(NewYork,1947and
I959).
2
For discussions oftheRegimen,seeLeslie B.Rout,Jr,TheAfricanExperienceinSpanishAmerica(Cambridge, 1976), pp.
I26-60;
MagnusM6rner,RaceMixture in theHistoryofLatinAmerica(Boston,1967),pp.53-75.
3
See,forexample,GonzaloAguirreBeltran,'TheIntegrationoftheNegrointotheNationalSocietyof Mexico',and CarlosRama,'ThePassingoftheAfro-UruguayanfromCasteSocietyintoClassSociety',both inMagnusM6rner(ed.),RaceandClass inLatini.Lat.Amer. Stud.
II,
I,I9-39PrintedinGreatBritain
19
oo22-2I6X/79/JLAS-IIIO$02.00
t
1979CambridgeUniversityPress
RaceVersus ClassAssociation:theAfro-Argentinesof
BuenosAires,
I850-I900*
byGEORGE REIDANDREWSFundamental o anunderstandingf thecomplexrelationshipsbetweenraceandsocialclassn Latin Americasanunderstandingftheprocessbywhich the castesocietiesofthe colonialandearlynationalperiodsweregraduallytransformednto the classsocietiesofthe twentiethcentury.1DuringtheI85osa number of South Americannations struck downthelastvestigesoftheirslaveregimesandthe colonialRegimendecastas,legislationdesignedtodividesocietyntoracialcastesarrangedn a well-definedhierarchy.2Amongthese countrieswereArgentina,Colombia,Ecuador,Peru,Uruguay,andVenezuela.Bolivia,Brazil,andParaguaydelayeduntillater in thecentury.Thesedevelopmentseem at firstglanceto havepavedthewayfor theintegrationf thenon-whitesasfully-fledgedparticipantsn the continent'snewlyformedclasssocieties,as severalauthorswritingon the Afro-LatinAmericanshaveconcluded.3Otherobservers re
*
Researchfor thisarticle wassupported by grantsfromtheSocialScienceResearchCouncilandtheFulbright-Hays Programofthe U.S.DepartmentofHealth,EducationandWelfare.Responsibilityforanystatements madehereinliessolelywiththeauthor.1By'caste' is understood 'anendogamousandhereditarysubdivisionofanethnicunitoccupyingapositionofsuperiorand inferiorrank orsocialesteem incomparisonwithothersuchsubdivisions.A.L.Kroeber,quotedinGeraldD.Berreman,'TheConceptofCaste',in David L. Sills(ed.),InternationalEncyclopedia oftheSocialSciences(NewYork,I968),
II,
333.By'class'isunderstood asocialgroupwhosemembersshare acombinationofobjectives(e.g.education,income,politicalor socialinfluence),andattitudinal(perceptionsofeachother and themselves aspartofthesameclass,commonlyheldideasconcerningclass interestsandgoals)characteristics,andwhosemembers areperceivedbythe rest ofthesocietyasbelongingtothat class.SeeSeymourM.Lipset,'SocialClass',inSills, xv,296-3I5,particularlypp.
3o0-I2.
Readers arefurtherreferredtoOliverC.Cox,Caste,Class and Race(NewYork,1947and
I959).
2
For discussions oftheRegimen,seeLeslie B.Rout,Jr,TheAfricanExperienceinSpanishAmerica(Cambridge, 1976), pp.
I26-60;
MagnusM6rner,RaceMixture in theHistoryofLatinAmerica(Boston,1967),pp.53-75.
3
See,forexample,GonzaloAguirreBeltran,'TheIntegrationoftheNegrointotheNationalSocietyof Mexico',and CarlosRama,'ThePassingoftheAfro-UruguayanfromCasteSocietyintoClassSociety',both inMagnusM6rner(ed.),RaceandClass inLatini.Lat.Amer. Stud.
II,
I,I9-39PrintedinGreatBritain
19
oo22-2I6X/79/JLAS-IIIO$02.00
t
1979CambridgeUniversityPress
RaceVersus ClassAssociation:theAfro-Argentinesof
BuenosAires,
I850-I900*
byGEORGE REIDANDREWSFundamental o anunderstandingf thecomplexrelationshipsbetweenraceandsocialclassn Latin Americasanunderstandingftheprocessbywhich the castesocietiesofthe colonialandearlynationalperiodsweregraduallytransformednto the classsocietiesofthe twentiethcentury.1DuringtheI85osa number of South Americannations struck downthelastvestigesoftheirslaveregimesandthe colonialRegimendecastas,legislationdesignedtodividesocietyntoracialcastesarrangedn a well-definedhierarchy.2Amongthese countrieswereArgentina,Colombia,Ecuador,Peru,Uruguay,andVenezuela.Bolivia,Brazil,andParaguaydelayeduntillater in thecentury.Thesedevelopmentseem at firstglanceto havepavedthewayfor theintegrationf thenon-whitesasfully-fledgedparticipantsn the continent'snewlyformedclasssocieties,as severalauthorswritingon the Afro-LatinAmericanshaveconcluded.3Otherobservers re
*
Researchfor thisarticle wassupported by grantsfromtheSocialScienceResearchCouncilandtheFulbright-Hays Programofthe U.S.DepartmentofHealth,EducationandWelfare.Responsibilityforanystatements madehereinliessolelywiththeauthor.1By'caste' is understood 'anendogamousandhereditarysubdivisionofanethnicunitoccupyingapositionofsuperiorand inferiorrank orsocialesteem incomparisonwithothersuchsubdivisions.A.L.Kroeber,quotedinGeraldD.Berreman,'TheConceptofCaste',in David L. Sills(ed.),InternationalEncyclopedia oftheSocialSciences(NewYork,I968),
II,
333.By'class'isunderstood asocialgroupwhosemembersshare acombinationofobjectives(e.g.education,income,politicalor socialinfluence),andattitudinal(perceptionsofeachother and themselves aspartofthesameclass,commonlyheldideasconcerningclass interestsandgoals)characteristics,andwhosemembers areperceivedbythe rest ofthesocietyasbelongingtothat class.SeeSeymourM.Lipset,'SocialClass',inSills, xv,296-3I5,particularlypp.
3o0-I2.
Readers arefurtherreferredtoOliverC.Cox,Caste,Class and Race(NewYork,1947and
I959).
2
For discussions oftheRegimen,seeLeslie B.Rout,Jr,TheAfricanExperienceinSpanishAmerica(Cambridge, 1976), pp.
I26-60;
MagnusM6rner,RaceMixture in theHistoryofLatinAmerica(Boston,1967),pp.53-75.
3
See,forexample,GonzaloAguirreBeltran,'TheIntegrationoftheNegrointotheNationalSocietyof Mexico',and CarlosRama,'ThePassingoftheAfro-UruguayanfromCasteSocietyintoClassSociety',both inMagnusM6rner(ed.),RaceandClass inLatin
 
20GeorgeReidAndrews
moreskeptical. Theyarguethataspectsofthe casteregimelive on into thepresent,even intheregionsmostnoticeablycharacterizedbyclass relation-ships,and thattheycompriseformidableobstacles to theintegrationandsocialmobilityofblack andbrownLatinAmericans.4Thecase ofBuenosAiresisofparticularnterestinexaminingtheprogressofAfro-LatinAmericans from caste toclasssociety.Conditions in thepost-
I850
citywouldappeartohave beenexceptionallyconducive to theinte-grationandsocial advancement ofblackpeopleinthecity's society.Comparativestudiesoffreeblackpopulationsin variouspartsoftheAmericashave found thatthosepopulations experiencedupwardmobilityindirectrelation totheprosperityandgrowthrate of the economies inwhichtheylived and worked. The moreactive theeconomy,thegreaterwere thesocialandeconomicopportunitiesfor blackpeople.5BuenosAires,should,therefore,haveprovidedan idealsettingforAfro-Argentineadvance-ment.Argentina'smeat and cereals-basedexportboom of theI870-I914periodmadeBuenos AiresthemostprosperousandrapidlygrowingcityinLatinAmerica.6Theexportboomwasin turnresponsiblefor theunusuallyearlydevelop-ment of a class-basedsocietyin thecity. Mainlyas aresultofEuropean
immigration,between
I870
and
I914
thecapitalofArgentinagrewfroma
quietbackwater ofI8o,oootoabustling,cosmopolitan metropolisof
1.6
million. A white-collarclasssprang uptofilltheoffices offinancial,com-mercial,andgovernmentalinstitutions.Alargerblue-collarclassworked atthetrades,at theport,in constructionandthebuddingindustries,andinservice. Thetraditionalelitecontinuedto consistof cattlebaronsand someimportantmerchants,but,as thecitygrew,a second rankof lessercapitalists
America(NewYork,
I970).
Thesetwoarticles arecondensedfrom theauthors'largerstudies,LapoblacidnnegradeMexico(Mexico,
I946
and1972)andLosafro-uruguayos(Montevideo,
I967).
4Inthe M6rnervolume,see FlorestanFernandes,'ImmigrationandRaceRelationsinSaoPaulo'.Fernandes'argumentsmaybe read atgreaterlengthin hisbooksOnegronomundodosbrancos(SaoPaulo,
1972),
Aintegrafaodonegronasociedadedeclases(SaoPaulo,1965),and itsEnglishtranslation TheNegroinBrazilianSociety(NewYork,1969).Twodated butstillclassic studies of North Americanrace relationsthat come tosimilarconclusionsareJohn Dollard,Caste and Class in aSouthernTown(NewYork,1937)and GunnarMyrdal,AnAmerican Dilemma(NewYork,
1942),
Chaps. 31-2.SimilarlyclassicisE.FranklinFrazier,BlackBourgeoisie (NewYork,
I957
and
I962).
StephanThernstrom'sThe Other Bostonians(Cambridge,1973)includes aninterestingchapteron vocationalmobilityinthe blackcommunityof BostonfromI880to
1960.
5DavidW. CohenandJackP. Greene(eds.),NeitherSlaveNorFree(Baltimore,
1972),
pp. 7-8,I7-I8.
6
SeeJamesScobie,Buenos Aires:PlazatoSuburb,
1870-19io
(NewYork,I974),passim,
andRobertoCortesConde,Hispano-america:LaAperturaalComercioMundial,1850-
1930
(BuenosAires,1975),Chap.VI.20GeorgeReidAndrews
moreskeptical. Theyarguethataspectsofthe casteregimelive on into thepresent,even intheregionsmostnoticeablycharacterizedbyclass relation-ships,and thattheycompriseformidableobstacles to theintegrationandsocialmobilityofblack andbrownLatinAmericans.4Thecase ofBuenosAiresisofparticularnterestinexaminingtheprogressofAfro-LatinAmericans from caste toclasssociety.Conditions in thepost-
I850
citywouldappeartohave beenexceptionallyconducive to theinte-grationandsocial advancement ofblackpeopleinthecity's society.Comparativestudiesoffreeblackpopulationsin variouspartsoftheAmericashave found thatthosepopulations experiencedupwardmobilityindirectrelation totheprosperityandgrowthrate of the economies inwhichtheylived and worked. The moreactive theeconomy,thegreaterwere thesocialandeconomicopportunitiesfor blackpeople.5BuenosAires,should,therefore,haveprovidedan idealsettingforAfro-Argentineadvance-ment.Argentina'smeat and cereals-basedexportboom of theI870-I914periodmadeBuenos AiresthemostprosperousandrapidlygrowingcityinLatinAmerica.6Theexportboomwasin turnresponsiblefor theunusuallyearlydevelop-ment of a class-basedsocietyin thecity. Mainlyas aresultofEuropean
immigration,between
I870
and
I914
thecapitalofArgentinagrewfroma
quietbackwater ofI8o,oootoabustling,cosmopolitan metropolisof
1.6
million. A white-collarclasssprang uptofilltheoffices offinancial,com-mercial,andgovernmentalinstitutions.Alargerblue-collarclassworked atthetrades,at theport,in constructionandthebuddingindustries,andinservice. Thetraditionalelitecontinuedto consistof cattlebaronsand someimportantmerchants,but,as thecitygrew,a second rankof lessercapitalists
America(NewYork,
I970).
Thesetwoarticles arecondensedfrom theauthors'largerstudies,LapoblacidnnegradeMexico(Mexico,
I946
and1972)andLosafro-uruguayos(Montevideo,
I967).
4Inthe M6rnervolume,see FlorestanFernandes,'ImmigrationandRaceRelationsinSaoPaulo'.Fernandes'argumentsmaybe read atgreaterlengthin hisbooksOnegronomundodosbrancos(SaoPaulo,
1972),
Aintegrafaodonegronasociedadedeclases(SaoPaulo,1965),and itsEnglishtranslation TheNegroinBrazilianSociety(NewYork,1969).Twodated butstillclassic studies of North Americanrace relationsthat come tosimilarconclusionsareJohn Dollard,Caste and Class in aSouthernTown(NewYork,1937)and GunnarMyrdal,AnAmerican Dilemma(NewYork,
1942),
Chaps. 31-2.SimilarlyclassicisE.FranklinFrazier,BlackBourgeoisie (NewYork,
I957
and
I962).
StephanThernstrom'sThe Other Bostonians(Cambridge,1973)includes aninterestingchapteron vocationalmobilityinthe blackcommunityof BostonfromI880to
1960.
5DavidW. CohenandJackP. Greene(eds.),NeitherSlaveNorFree(Baltimore,
1972),
pp. 7-8,I7-I8.
6
SeeJamesScobie,Buenos Aires:PlazatoSuburb,
1870-19io
(NewYork,I974),passim,
andRobertoCortesConde,Hispano-america:LaAperturaalComercioMundial,1850-
1930
(BuenosAires,1975),Chap.VI.20GeorgeReidAndrews
moreskeptical. Theyarguethataspectsofthe casteregimelive on into thepresent,even intheregionsmostnoticeablycharacterizedbyclass relation-ships,and thattheycompriseformidableobstacles to theintegrationandsocialmobilityofblack andbrownLatinAmericans.4Thecase ofBuenosAiresisofparticularnterestinexaminingtheprogressofAfro-LatinAmericans from caste toclasssociety.Conditions in thepost-
I850
citywouldappeartohave beenexceptionallyconducive to theinte-grationandsocial advancement ofblackpeopleinthecity's society.Comparativestudiesoffreeblackpopulationsin variouspartsoftheAmericashave found thatthosepopulations experiencedupwardmobilityindirectrelation totheprosperityandgrowthrate of the economies inwhichtheylived and worked. The moreactive theeconomy,thegreaterwere thesocialandeconomicopportunitiesfor blackpeople.5BuenosAires,should,therefore,haveprovidedan idealsettingforAfro-Argentineadvance-ment.Argentina'smeat and cereals-basedexportboom of theI870-I914periodmadeBuenos AiresthemostprosperousandrapidlygrowingcityinLatinAmerica.6Theexportboomwasin turnresponsiblefor theunusuallyearlydevelop-ment of a class-basedsocietyin thecity. Mainlyas aresultofEuropean
immigration,between
I870
and
I914
thecapitalofArgentinagrewfroma
quietbackwater ofI8o,oootoabustling,cosmopolitan metropolisof
1.6
million. A white-collarclasssprang uptofilltheoffices offinancial,com-mercial,andgovernmentalinstitutions.Alargerblue-collarclassworked atthetrades,at theport,in constructionandthebuddingindustries,andinservice. Thetraditionalelitecontinuedto consistof cattlebaronsand someimportantmerchants,but,as thecitygrew,a second rankof lessercapitalists
America(NewYork,
I970).
Thesetwoarticles arecondensedfrom theauthors'largerstudies,LapoblacidnnegradeMexico(Mexico,
I946
and1972)andLosafro-uruguayos(Montevideo,
I967).
4Inthe M6rnervolume,see FlorestanFernandes,'ImmigrationandRaceRelationsinSaoPaulo'.Fernandes'argumentsmaybe read atgreaterlengthin hisbooksOnegronomundodosbrancos(SaoPaulo,
1972),
Aintegrafaodonegronasociedadedeclases(SaoPaulo,1965),and itsEnglishtranslation TheNegroinBrazilianSociety(NewYork,1969).Twodated butstillclassic studies of North Americanrace relationsthat come tosimilarconclusionsareJohn Dollard,Caste and Class in aSouthernTown(NewYork,1937)and GunnarMyrdal,AnAmerican Dilemma(NewYork,
1942),
Chaps. 31-2.SimilarlyclassicisE.FranklinFrazier,BlackBourgeoisie (NewYork,
I957
and
I962).
StephanThernstrom'sThe Other Bostonians(Cambridge,1973)includes aninterestingchapteron vocationalmobilityinthe blackcommunityof BostonfromI880to
1960.
5DavidW. CohenandJackP. Greene(eds.),NeitherSlaveNorFree(Baltimore,
1972),
pp. 7-8,I7-I8.
6
SeeJamesScobie,Buenos Aires:PlazatoSuburb,
1870-19io
(NewYork,I974),passim,
andRobertoCortesConde,Hispano-america:LaAperturaalComercioMundial,1850-
1930
(BuenosAires,1975),Chap.VI.20GeorgeReidAndrews
moreskeptical. Theyarguethataspectsofthe casteregimelive on into thepresent,even intheregionsmostnoticeablycharacterizedbyclass relation-ships,and thattheycompriseformidableobstacles to theintegrationandsocialmobilityofblack andbrownLatinAmericans.4Thecase ofBuenosAiresisofparticularnterestinexaminingtheprogressofAfro-LatinAmericans from caste toclasssociety.Conditions in thepost-
I850
citywouldappeartohave beenexceptionallyconducive to theinte-grationandsocial advancement ofblackpeopleinthecity's society.Comparativestudiesoffreeblackpopulationsin variouspartsoftheAmericashave found thatthosepopulations experiencedupwardmobilityindirectrelation totheprosperityandgrowthrate of the economies inwhichtheylived and worked. The moreactive theeconomy,thegreaterwere thesocialandeconomicopportunitiesfor blackpeople.5BuenosAires,should,therefore,haveprovidedan idealsettingforAfro-Argentineadvance-ment.Argentina'smeat and cereals-basedexportboom of theI870-I914periodmadeBuenos AiresthemostprosperousandrapidlygrowingcityinLatinAmerica.6Theexportboomwasin turnresponsiblefor theunusuallyearlydevelop-ment of a class-basedsocietyin thecity. Mainlyas aresultofEuropean
immigration,between
I870
and
I914
thecapitalofArgentinagrewfroma
quietbackwater ofI8o,oootoabustling,cosmopolitan metropolisof
1.6
million. A white-collarclasssprang uptofilltheoffices offinancial,com-mercial,andgovernmentalinstitutions.Alargerblue-collarclassworked atthetrades,at theport,in constructionandthebuddingindustries,andinservice. Thetraditionalelitecontinuedto consistof cattlebaronsand someimportantmerchants,but,as thecitygrew,a second rankof lessercapitalists
America(NewYork,
I970).
Thesetwoarticles arecondensedfrom theauthors'largerstudies,LapoblacidnnegradeMexico(Mexico,
I946
and1972)andLosafro-uruguayos(Montevideo,
I967).
4Inthe M6rnervolume,see FlorestanFernandes,'ImmigrationandRaceRelationsinSaoPaulo'.Fernandes'argumentsmaybe read atgreaterlengthin hisbooksOnegronomundodosbrancos(SaoPaulo,
1972),
Aintegrafaodonegronasociedadedeclases(SaoPaulo,1965),and itsEnglishtranslation TheNegroinBrazilianSociety(NewYork,1969).Twodated butstillclassic studies of North Americanrace relationsthat come tosimilarconclusionsareJohn Dollard,Caste and Class in aSouthernTown(NewYork,1937)and GunnarMyrdal,AnAmerican Dilemma(NewYork,
1942),
Chaps. 31-2.SimilarlyclassicisE.FranklinFrazier,BlackBourgeoisie (NewYork,
I957
and
I962).
StephanThernstrom'sThe Other Bostonians(Cambridge,1973)includes aninterestingchapteron vocationalmobilityinthe blackcommunityof BostonfromI880to
1960.
5DavidW. CohenandJackP. Greene(eds.),NeitherSlaveNorFree(Baltimore,
1972),
pp. 7-8,I7-I8.
6
SeeJamesScobie,Buenos Aires:PlazatoSuburb,
1870-19io
(NewYork,I974),passim,
andRobertoCortesConde,Hispano-america:LaAperturaalComercioMundial,1850-
1930
(BuenosAires,1975),Chap.VI.

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