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Published by Pascal Cătălin

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Published by: Pascal Cătălin on May 08, 2011
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Editura Universitatii din Bucuresti- 2006 -
Thermal Physics is one of the basic fields of study in the curricula of any sound training inPhysical Sciences. Many of the concepts operating in this branch of Physics have also everydayhomonyms. Therefore, it is always tempting for beginning students to overuse intuitive shortcuts indealing with practical problems and to think with vulgar arguments. However, while intuition isdefinitely a basic tool for a physicist, it should clearly rely on a solid conceptual background.The present set of lectures aims to develop the basic ideas and concepts of Thermal Physics fora beginning reader, starting from the intuitive counterparts of terms and adding the necessaryamount of rigor needed for both an effective use in solving the practical work and in preparing formore advanced approaches of the field. The presented material assumes some basic knowledge of elementary physics and mathematics, at the usual level of high-school curricula. Nevertheless, it isessentially self-contained and includes some mathematical interludes on basic calculus, lineardifferential forms and elementary probability theory. At the end of every chapter a specializedbibliography and a set of exercises are offered. The exercises are intended for immediate practice onthe topics treated in the corresponding chapter and are of various degrees of difficulty. Answers areprovided to all of them. The most difficult problems are fully solved and hints are offered for theones of intermediate difficulty.The lectures, which are currently followed by the first year of English-speaking students at theFaculty of Physics of the University of Bucharest, can be profitably used by those studying anyrelated technical field and even by interested terminal high-school students.The Author
1. Introduction 7
Macroscopic and microscopic theories 71.2
Measurable and hidden parameters 71.3
The main purpose of Thermal Physics 91.4
Some fundamental concepts of Thermodynamics 9Bibliography 13
2. Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics. The concept of empirical temperature. 14
Zeroth Law 142.2
The empirical temperature 15Bibliography 17Exercises 18
3. The concept of internal energy and the First Law of Thermodynamics 20
Extensive and intensive parameters 203.2
Variations of state parameters 203.3
The concept of internal energy 213.4
The mechanical work 233.5
The chemical work 253.6
Constraints, envelopes and walls 263.7
The First Law of Thermodynamics 28Bibliography 30Exercises 30
4. Mathematical interlude 31
Linear differential forms 314.2
Holonomic LDFs 334.3
Integration of LDFs 354.4
Implicit dependence 37Bibliography 39Exercises 39
5. The restraint statement of The Second Law of Thermodynamics. The concept
of entropy.
Preliminary concepts 405.2
The restraint statement of The Second Law of Thermodynamics 405.3
The theorem of Carnot 415.4
Some properties of the function
) 435.5
The absolute thermodynamic temperature 465.6
The relation of Clausius 485.7
The efficiency of a Carnot motor 515.8
The concept of entropy 525.9
Example of a non-thermodynamic system 54Bibliography 57Exercises 57
6. The general statement of The Second Law of Thermodynamics. The fundamentalequation of Thermodynamics. The Third Law of Thermodynamics and the scalingof the entropy

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