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BroJon News - What Really Killed the Dinosaurs

BroJon News - What Really Killed the Dinosaurs

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Published by Ionut Dobrinescu

formerly www.brojon.org

formerly www.brojon.org

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Categories:Types, Research, Science
Published by: Ionut Dobrinescu on May 08, 2011
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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BroJon News: Friday May 13, 2005
CHAPTER ONE: Maybe The Theorists Got It Wrong
In 1980, Dr Luis Alvarez hypothesized that a massive meteorite hit the earth 65 million years ago,leaving a deposit of white powder around the world, known in geology as the K-T boundary.Below the K-T boundary, fossils of large dinosaurs are found, but above the boundary - no dinosaurs.This observation has been the reason for the main acceptedtheory for the last two decades, that a large meteorite killed thedinosaurs. But it that true?
THE DEBATE: Asteroid or Volcano
Some paleontologists are now proposing that possibly thegeologic record shows that severe climate change from extremevolcanic activity during the time was responsible for the death of the dinosaurs. The debate is now forcing scientists to choose upsides - Was it meteorite or volcanoes? But what if both arewrong, and it was neither?Some of the data seem to indicate it might have been ameteorite, but other observations seem to favor a volcanic cause.But there are also holes in both theories. Some of the geologicand scientific observations can't be explained by either or both of the theories.Such as why did whatever happened at the K-T boundary,kill only all the large reptilians, the dinosaurs, but seemed not tohave any affect on such smaller ancient reptiles as turtles,crocodiles and alligators? Those animals along with similar reptiles still remain alive today. Also notaffected were reptilian-like birds and even insects, other than most of them became much smaller after theK-T event.
THE CHANGES: At the Cretaceous-Tertiary K-T Boundary
Some clear changes in the lifeforms on earth did occur at the K-T boundary. Prior to the boundary,the predominant form was reptilian, but afterward, the predominant form was small non-reptiles such asearly marsupials and mammals. Most scientists, misconstrue this change as from "cold-blooded" animalsto "warm-blooded" animals. Not So.The difference between reptiles and mammals is not the temperature of the blood but the mechanismused to maintain that temperature. Reptiles have no internal organ or means for maintaining theirtemperature. If the temperature is too hot, then reptiles must hide under a rock or in the shade to keepcool. Or if the temperature is too cool then reptiles must "sun" themselves to gain heat, or burrow in theground or stay in water to stay warm or regulate their temperature. But normally, reptilian bloodtemperature is just about the same as in mammals. Reptiles must use external means to regulate theirtemperature.Most mammals have something like a thyroid gland that monitors the external air temperaturebreathed in and flowing through the throat, and also monitors the blood temperature flowing from heartto brain. This unique gland sits in the throat and has both hot carotid arteries coming directly from theheart and passing through both thyroid lobes. The thyroid gland then releases the proper amount of thyroxin to control evaporative cooling in the lungs and metabolic heating to maintain a constant blood-brain temperature - despite the outside air temperature and weather conditions.
Fig. 1) Dr. Luis Alvarez and son Walter discover the"Boundary"
For both reptiles and mammals, in fact almost all animals with nerve and brain tissue, that braintissue must be kept at a temperature of about 100F within a few degrees, to remain electrically andchemically active. If not, then the brain tissue ceases to function properly and coma and death soon result.Note that temperature for future reference.While human body temperature is about 98.6 degrees, the brain temperature is about 99 to 100degrees. If the brain temperature falls to about 95 degrees, then the individual goes to sleep. During sleep,the brain temperature begins to rise each morning and is back to 100 degrees about 15 minutes beforewaking up. If the temperature of a mammal's brain drops about 10degrees the result is coma. In some animals this coma condition isrecoverable and is called hibernation, which is a winter survivalmechanism for some animals.If a reptile falls asleep and the surrounding air temperature fallsto 70 degrees, the reptile may not wake up.Reptiles have no means to regulate their brain temperatureduring sleep. That's why terrariums are usually kept heated aboveroom temperature, or the reptile may not survive.What that means is that most mammals. marsupials and birds cantolerate weather changes from arid desert heat to frigid blizzard snowstorm and still survive. But most reptiles wouldn't have a chance overthat wide range of climate. Today, the reptiles only live in a verynarrow range of climates around the earth. Birds such as penguins, and mammals like the seals live in 32degree freezing Antarctica and the Arctic, but reptiles do not.
THE GREAT SHIFT: Gymnosperms to Angiosperms -- The Record of the Seeds
Usually not discussed at all, in what may have happened during the K-T Boundary event, is that not just animals such as dinosaurs were affected, but also an extreme and vast change in the plant lifeforms of earth also occurred at that same time.Prior to the K-T shift nearly all of the plants were gymnosperms. In general these are non-floweringnon-seed-bearing plants like ferns. fern trees, and fern palms, or needled trees such as redwoods or pinestrees. These plants are also called "evergreens" since these plants seem the same, or green, all year round.They are not seasonal plants. These primitive plants do have a simple form of seed or spore but withoutany protective covering. The name gymnosperm means naked-seed.After the K-T boundary, most of the vast variety of new plant forms were angiosperms. These are theflowering plants, which either completely die each year and regrow each spring from seeds dropped theprevious year. Or if it is a large tree, the leaves are completely dropped and new growth comes from newleaves and flowering portions of the tree each spring. The seeds of angiosperms have hard coverings orcasings which can tolerate hot arid drying desert heat and even cold freezing, then still sprout the nextyear. The name angiosperm means covered-seed.What this means is that after the K-T boundary, the new predominant lifeforms, both plants andanimals, were the ones which could tolerate wide changes in the seasons from winter to summer. Butbefore the K-T boundary, the plants and animals had no means to respond to seasonal changes. But whatcauses seasonal changes? They are caused by the tilt of the earth.
THE K-T EVENT: The Beginning of Earth Seasons
Is it possible that before the K-T boundary the earth was not tilted, then whatever happened at the K-T boundary event also caused the earth to tilt at 23.5 degrees? This would mean that before the K-T eventthere were no seasons, and this favored the older life forms of gymnosperms and reptiles. But after the K-T boundary, the earth became tilted, causing seasons and seasonal climate changes, and then favoring thenew angiosperms and mammals.As further evidence, most angiosperms need the changes of the seasons to trigger when to drop seedsor sprout. Most angiosperms also need the changes in the length of the daylight as the seasons change to
Fig. 2) Heated Terrarium With IncandescentHood for Constant Warmth Above RoomTemperature, Which Is Not Necessary For Mammal Pet Cages
determine when to bloom. Without the seasonal changes most angiosperms would fail. Does this then showthat angiosperms could not and did not develop before the K-T boundary because the earth was not yettilted and there were no seasons? Not yet.I have not seen any other scientist look at this possibility to explain the disappearance of the dinosaurs65 million years ago. But if this possibility were correct then current theories about orogeny, paleo-magnetism and plate tectonics would also need to be revised. There is plenty of data in the geologic recordto show that this might be a good idea to revise all three at the same time. And it might finally resolve theissue about what really killed the dinosaurs.
CHAPTER TWO: What Caused the Earth to Tilt 65 Million Years Ago?
In chapter one, you probably found that there is significant evidence in the geologic and scientificrecord indicating that the earth seems to have somehow been tilted over about 23.5 degrees at the time of the K-T boundary 65 million years ago. And the tilting of the earth started seasons, along with seasonalchanges in climate, and that is what killed the dinosaurs. Could it have been some wandering asteroidpassing near or impacting earth that caused the earth to tilt?The laws of physics would say that nothing internal to the earth could have caused the earth to tiltover on its own axis so it must have been some event external to the earth such as a passing asteroid. Isthat true? What if some huge volcanic explosion erupted in the earth's northern hemisphere. The violenteruption could then act like a large rocket jet blasting into space, causing the earth to recoil and tilt backfrom the blast and then tilting over at 23.5 degrees. Is that possible?But again we get back to the current main scientific theories and dilemma, that what killed thedinosaurs was either a wandering asteroid passing by or impacting earth causing it to tilt over, andcreating seasons and killing dinosaurs. Or maybe it was a large volcanic explosion tilting the earth andcausing seasons and killing dinosaurs. Was it asteroid or volcanoes? Was it some as yet unknown andundiscovered "deus ex machina" which caused the tilt of the earth? Again, maybe it was neither. Whatdoes the actual geologic record show?
THE LAYERS: Peeling the Earth Like an Onion
One of the important items of evidence is that, surely when earth was formed it was layered,something like the layers of an onion. Each layer downward was more dense and heavier than the layersabove.Above the heavy metallic mantle floats themolten fluid asthenosphere which is where mosthot volcanic lava comes from. This material ismostly iron, silicon and magnesium metallic alloysand is called SIMA.Floating on the astheno- sphere is the lighterrocky continental material. This material isalmost all silicon and aluminum atoms which arebonded with oxygen. Since it is mostly silicon andaluminum oxide it is called SIAL. Metallic oxidesare all called ceramics and are much lighter andless dense than molten pure metals. So the lighterrocky ceramic SIAL continents float on theheavier metallic SIMA asthenosphere.Floating above the rocky SIAL is the layer of watery oceans or the hydrosphere. And floatingabove all of those is the even lighter less dense
Fig. 3) The Layered Onion Of Earth: The Rigid Layers of SIMA and SIALlithosphere Float On The Fluid Asthenosphere (shown in red)

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