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4 - Natural Hazards iGCSE

4 - Natural Hazards iGCSE

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Published by Andy Funnell

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Published by: Andy Funnell on May 09, 2011
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12/20/2013

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Natural Hazards Unit
Topic Key Points
Case Studies/Examples
1.
 
S
tructure of the Earth
Know how and why plates move:
y
 
S
tructure of the Earth ±
C
rust (solid), mantle (liquid),outer core (liquid), inner core (solid)
.
 
y
 
Key rules ± Temperature & pressure increase with depth
.
 
y
 
C
onvectional currents
in the mantle cause plates to moveand interact at plate boundaries
.
 
Pages 262-263
2
.
 
PlateBoundariesand Margins
There are 4 types of plate margin
.
You must be able to sketch,annotate and describe all of the following:
y
 
C
onstructive Margin
± When two plates, usually oceanic,move away from each other
.
Magma quickly rises to thesurface to form new oceanic crust
.
This can be known assea-floor spreading
.
 
y
 
D
estructive Margins
± Where plates of two differentdensities e
.
g
.
an oceanic crust of less density moves towardsa heavier continental crust
.
This creates a subduction zone,where the oceanic plate is forced down causing it to melt,and creating friction
.
 
y
 
C
ollision Margin
± Two continental crusts move towardseach other causing them to push upwards and form foldmountains
.
 
y
 
C
onservative Margin
± Two plates slide past each other
.
 No volcanic activity but large friction build up which cancause strong earthquakes
.
 
Pages 264-265 
 
3
.
 
V
olcanoes & Earthquakes
Know the basic theory of both hazards:
y
 
V
olcanoes
:
y
 
S
hort term effects: Ash cloud, volcanic bombs, lava flow,lahars, sulphur, pyroclastic flow
.
 
y
 
L
ong term effects: Deforestation, loss of habitat, pollution,homelessness, habitat destruction, insurance issues, loss of infrastructure
.
 Make sure you can label a volcano diagram, and be able todescribe the effects above
.
 
y
 
Earthquakes
:
y
 
S
hort term effects: Buildings collapse, death, damage toinfrastructure
.
 
y
 
L
ong term effects: People trapped, homelessness, cost of cleanup, tsunami?Make sure you can use words like friction, epicentre, focus andseismic waves in your descriptions
.
 
4
.
 
V
olcano
C
ase
S
tudies
You must have an
L
EDC & MEDC case study:For each:
y
 
Know key dates, figures & statistics e
.
g
.
when it erupted,how many times it erupted
.
 
y
 
Be able to describe the impacts in detail
.
If you can, classthem into environmental, economic and social
.
 
y
 
For some case studies it will be easy to class into short termand long term impacts
.
 
y
 
Know how the volcano was caused e
.
g
.
what plates were

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