GPS receiver designhttp://dev.emcelettronica.com/print/518553 din 1404.09.2008 18:26
and external interferences. It is better to copy thereference design from the application notes for aninexperienced engineer. Never the less, GPS antennadesign is still easier than the mobile phone antennadesign. We know, the latest mobile phone has to workon 800MHz, 900MHz and 1800MHz with PA and faces to the big noises inside.The most commonly used antennas in GPS are the Helix and the patch antenna. Patch antennahas strong direction selectivity, which is used in most of the external GPS mice. The Helixantenna is much suitable for handheld GPS, which offers broader antenna angle, and it worksbetter than patch antenna when it is close to human.There are some off-the-shelf antennas available in the market. Most of them are externalantennas, which offer better performance.Sarantel offers GPS antenna in full Balun design, which offers 360 degree antenna receptionand highly frequency selectivity, and most of the noises can be eliminated. This company alsooffers the bulk ceramic antenna as the smallest antenna in the world.Mr. Mark Kesauer offers an inexpensive external GPS antenna design on Circuit Cellar. ThePDF document is available on here
. This design uses commonly available components andmaterials.
The RF parts of a GPS from different suppliers are slightly different but most of these ICs aresharing same concept. The RF section includes LNA, filter, PLL and BPSK demodulator.Maxim’s MAX2769 demonstrates the general RF IC for GPS receiver.The RF front-end of a GPS receiver first amplifies the weak incoming signal with a low-noiseamplifier (LNA), and then downconverts the signal to a low intermediate frequency (IF) ofapproximately 4MHz. This downconversion is accomplished by mixing the input RF signal withthe local oscillator signal using one or two mixers. The resulting analog IF signal is converted toa digital IF signal by the analog-to-digital converter (ADC).The MAX2769 integrates all these functions (LNA, mixer, and ADC), thus significantly reducingthe development time for applications. The device offers a choice of two LNAs: one LNAfeatures a very-low, 0.9dB noise figure, 19dB of gain, and -1dBm IP3, for use with passiveantennas; the other LNA has a 1.5dB noise figure with slightly lower gain and powerconsumption, and a slightly higher IP3, for use with an active antenna.There is a provision for external filtering at RF after the amplifier. The signal is thendownconverted directly using the integrated 20-bit, sigma-delta, fractional-N frequencysynthesizer together with a 15-bit integer divider to achieve virtually any desired IF between zeroand 12MHz. A wide selection of possible IF filtering choices accommodates different schemes,such as those of Galileo.The overall gain from RF input to IF output can be tuned or automatically controlled over a 60dBto 115dB range. The output can be chosen as analog, CMOS, or limited differential. The internalADC has a selectable output of one to three bits. The integrated reference oscillator enablesoperation with either a crystal or a temperature-compensated crystal oscillator (TCXO), and anyinput reference frequency from 8MHz to 44MHz can be used.