Ya. Pavlyuchenkov and C. P. Dullemond: Dust crystallinity in protoplanetary disks 3
this is the Lorenz force, by magnetic ﬁelds, so we assumethat magnetic ﬁelds indeed provide this torque. The accretion and spreading of the disk is, in this picture, nothingother than a material diﬀusion: Packagesof gas being transferred randomly, under the condition of local angular momentum conservation. The radial mixing of a passive tracerin the disk is therefore an integral part of this. If the accretion/spreading of the disk is then viewed in a frameworkof ‘viscous disks’, then the
ν/D
ratio follows strictly fromthis derivation.This picture was also presented in Tutukov &Pavlyuchenkov (2004), where diﬀerent types of astrophysical disks are described in frames of nonstationary diﬀusional models. However, they used only numerical modelsand did not provide the equation which governs the evolution of such disks.In this section we will derive these equations and castthem in the standard form of viscous disk equations, whichyields the ratio
ν/D
. We are fully aware that the simpliﬁcations of our assumptions are quite drastic and that realisticMHD simulations are presumably better and yield somewhat diﬀerent results. Nevertheless, we justify our approachin light of the fundamental nature of these equations.
2.1. The mass ﬂuxes from the cell
Let the mass of the disk be small enough so its selfgravitation can be neglected. The disk is assumed to begeometrically thin, Keplerian, and axially symmetric. Wedescribe the structure of the disk in terms of the surfacedensity Σ(
R
), where
R
is the distance from the axis of symmetry.We introduce a grid
{
R
i
}
, which divides the domaininto annular elements which form the grid cells. We assumethat the cell size
h
i
=(
R
i
+1

R
i
) is equal to the
characteristicradial mean free path of a turbulent element
. The surfacedensity Σ
i
is assumed to be constant within each cell. Alongwith Σ
i
, the average orbital Keplerian velocity is also determined in each grid cell,
V
i
, as well as the average radialcomponent of the turbulent velocity,
V
r,
turb
(
i
).Let us consider a current cell and denote the nearestcells A and B, see Fig.1. We suppose that in a time ∆
t
the mass
M
in the current cell moves to the neighboringcells due to turbulent motion. The matter leaving this cellis transferred to the two adjacent cells, and this redistribution of the mass must conserve mass and angular momentum according to the philosophy described above. Thecorresponding equations for the system of three cells can
Fig.1.
The scheme of the mass transfer in the model of diﬀusion disk.
Fig.2.
The scheme of the mass transfer between two cellsin the model of diﬀusion diskbe written
M
=
M
a
+
M
b
(1)
MRV
=
M
a
R
a
V
a
+
M
b
R
b
V
b
,
(2)where
V
a
and
V
b
are the Keplerian velocities for radii
R
a
and
R
b
, respectively.Here we will derive the diﬀerential equation which describes the evolution of such a disk in the limit
h
→
0,assuming also for simplicity that
h
i
=
h
=const. Using theTaylor expansion of Eq. (2) we obtain (see Appendix A1):
M
a
=
M
2
1 +14
hR
(3)
M
b
=
M
2
1
−
14
hR
.
(4)Note that this looks as if mass is always transported outward, since
M
b
< M
a
. However, as we shall see below, thetrue radial ﬂux of matter may have either sign.
2.2. The mass ﬂux across the cell boundary
Denote
M
(
R
)
a
as a mass transferred from the cell with
R
into the cell
R
+
h
. Also, let
M
(
R
+
h
)
b
be a mass transferredfrom the cell
R
+
h
into the cell
R
F
ab
as a total ﬂux across the boundary between the cells:
F
ab
∆
t
=
M
(
R
)
a
−
M
(
R
+
h
)
b
.
(5)Using the Taylor expansion of Eq. (5) (see Appendix A2)we ﬁnd:
F
ab
∆
t
=
−
12
hR
1
/
2
∂ ∂R
(
MR
−
1
/
2
)
.
(6)Note, that if the mass ﬂux
M
(
R
)
does not depend on radius,then
F
ab
>
0, i.e. the mass is transferred outwards.One of the basic assumptions of our diﬀusion model isthe relation for the ﬂux from the cell:
M
= 2
πR
·
Σ
·
V
r,
turb
·
∆
t.
(7)If we substitute this relation into Eq. (6) and introducethe diﬀusion coeﬃcient (see Appendix A3 for the choice of numerical coeﬃcient):
D
=12
h
·
V
r,
turb
,
(8)