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Dust crystallinity in protoplanetary disks

Dust crystallinity in protoplanetary disks

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Astronomy & Astrophysics 
manuscript no. msc
ESO 2008February 1, 2008
Dust crystallinity in protoplanetary disks: the effect of diffusion/viscosity ratio
Ya. Pavlyuchenkov and C. P. Dullemond
Max Planck Institut f¨ur Astronomie, K¨onigstuhl 17, 69117 Heidelberg, GermanyPreprint online version: February 1, 2008
ABSTRACT
The process of turbulent radial mixing in protoplanetary disks has strong relevance to the analysis of the spatialdistribution of crystalline dust species in disks around young stars and to studies of the composition of meteorites andcomets in our own solar system. A debate has gone on in the recent literature on the ratio of the effective viscositycoefficient
ν 
(responsible for accretion) to the turbulent diffusion coefficient
D
(responsible for mixing). Numericalmagneto-hydrodynamic simulations have yielded values between
ν/D
10 (Carballido, Stone & Pringle2005) and
ν/D
0
.
85 (Johansen & Klahr2005). Here we present two analytic arguments for the ratio
ν/D
= 1
/
3 which arebased on elegant, though strongly simplified assumptions. We argue that whichever of these numbers comes closestto reality may be determined
observationally 
by using spatially resolved mid-infrared measurements of protoplanetarydisks around Herbig stars. If meridional flows are present in the disk, then we expect less abundance of crystalline dustin the surface layers, a prediction which can likewise be observationally tested with mid-infrared interferometers.
Key words.
accretion disks — (stars:) formation
1. Introduction
Turbulent mixing plays an important role in the physics of protoplanetary accretion disks. The same turbulence that isresponsible for the anomalousviscosityof the disk (and thusfor the accretion process) is also responsible for the radialand vertical mixing of material in the disk. This mixing islikely to have strong influence on thermochemical processesand grain growth in disks. For instance, models of the gas-phase chemistry in disks turn out to be strongly dependenton the level of turbulent mixing (Gammie1996; Semenov,Wiebe & Henning2004; Ilgner2006). This is because some chemical reactions may be very slow in some regions butfast in another. Thus mixing can transport processed gasfrom the latter region to the former region, affecting themolecular abundances there.For dust solid-state chemistry mixing plays presumablyan even bigger role. Some evidence from meteoritics pointsto weak mixing, such as the recently discovered chemicalcomplementarity of chondrules and matrix in some chon-drites (Klerner & Palme2000). On the other hand, theexistence of Calcium-Aluminium-rich Inclusions (CAIs) inmany chondritic meteorites points toward some level of mixing in the early solar system, since CAIs are thoughtto form closer to the sun. Samples returned from cometWild 2 by the STARDUST mission revealed that CAI-likematerial can be present in comets, which is interpreted asevidence for radial mixing (Zolensky et al.2006). In in-frared observations of protoplanetary disks there is strongevidence of the existence of crystalline silicates at radii inthe disk that are far larger than the radius at which thedisk temperatures are high enough for thermal annealing.
Send offprint requests to
: Ya. Pavlyuchenkov, e-mail:
pavyar@mpia.de
One idea is that they got there by radial mixing from thesehot inner regions to the cooler outer regions (Gail2001;Bockelee-Morvan2002).The process of radial mixing by turbulence can be de-scribed by a diffusion equation governed by a diffusion co-efficient
D
(Morfill & V¨olk1984). Turbulence also plays an important role in the theory of coagulation of dust(e.g. V¨olk et al.1980). It can both prevent and acceler- ate grain growth, in complex ways. The process of accre-tion is, on the other hand, described by the equations of mass- and angular momentum conservation in a viscousmedium, which is ruled by the effective viscosity coeffi-cient
ν 
(Shakura & Sunyaev1973; Lynden-Bell & Pringle1974). Both
ν 
and
D
may depend on distance to the star(i.e. the radial coordinate of the disk
R
) and both have thesame dimension. In fact, because they both arise from thesame turbulence, there are reasons to believe that they arenearly the same, apart from a dimensionless factor of orderunity which is called the Schmidt number:
ν/D
Sc. Theeffective viscosity
ν 
may be partly produced by Reynoldstress (turbulent motions of the gas), Maxwell-stress (mag-netic field lines transporting angular momentum), as well asgravity waves in moderately gravitationally unstable disks.However, the mixing
D
can
only 
be due to Reynold stress(turbulent motions). So
D
and
ν 
are clearly related, but donot necessarily have to be equal.As has been shown by Clarke & Pringle (1988), theefficiency of outward radial mixing in steady disks de-pends on the
ratio
of 
ν 
to
D
, i.e. on Sc, and thereforethe Schmidt number plays an essential role in the under-standing of the distribution of various chemical and dustspecies in disks, much more so than the absolute values of 
D
and
ν 
. The Schmidt number of turbulent flows has beendiscussed in several studies in the past (e.g. Tennekes &
 
2 Ya. Pavlyuchenkov and C. P. Dullemond: Dust crystallinity in protoplanetary disks
Lumley1972; McComb1990). These authors typically ar- gue for
ν/D
0
.
7. It is not clear, however, whether thesefindings can be directly translated to turbulence in rotat-ing Keplerian accretion disks. Accretion disk flows are fun-damentally different from laboratory flow (Balbus2003).Stone & Balbus (1996) have shown, using 3D hydrodynam-ical simulations as well as analytical arguments, that hy-drodynamical turbulence resulting from vertical convectiontends to transport angular momentum inward instead of outward. This stands in contrast to turbulence in planarshear flows which, as Stone & Balbus confirm in their sim-ulations, transports momentum in the opposite direction.The same kind of inward angular momentum transport wasreported by R¨udiger et al. (2005). Currently the most widely accepted theory for the originof effective viscosity in accretion disks is that of magneto-rotational turbulence. This picture is based on an interplaybetween weak magnetic fields and the differentially rotat-ing gas in the disk, causing an instability that drives theturbulence (Balbus & Hawley1991). Angular momentumis then transported both by Reynold stresses as well as byMaxwell stresses. However, there are various uncertaintiesabout whether the magneto-rotational instability can oper-ate in protoplanetary disks which are often very near to be-ing neutral (e.g. Semenov et al.2004; Ilgner & Nelson2006, Oishi et al.2007). All in all it is still quite unclear whatthe nature of the turbulence and the mechanism of angularmomentum transport is, and therefore the issue of the
ν/D
ratio also remains open.Recently, several publications have attempted to shedlight on the
ν/D
ratio in accretion disks with full 3DMHD simulations of such turbulence. These simulationshave yielded values ranging from
ν/D
10 (Carballidoet al.2005) to
ν/D
0
.
85 (Johansen & Klahr2005). Thedrawback of these 3D MHD slab geometry models is thatthey have a finite numerical resolution which is in generalrather coarse. There are reasons to believe that simulationswith higher resolution might yield different results. Suchinitial calculations seem to indeed indicate a reduction of magneto-rotational instability, (Dzyurkevich 2007, privatecommunication).At the same time, new 2D models of Keller &Gail (2004) and Tscharnuter & Gail (2007) show the pres- ence of large-scale circulations within the disk. These calcu-lations support the results found previously in the analyti-cal paper of Urpin (1984), and in the asymptotic study of Regev & Gitelman (2002). Following these results, beyondthe certain critical radius near the disk’s equatorial plane,the material moves in the outward direction, whereas theaccretion flow develops in the surface layer of the disk. Asa result of the large-scale circulation, which is driven byviscous angular momentum transfer, advective transportdominates diffusive mixing in the outer part of the disk.Species that are produced or undergo chemical reactionsin the warm inner zones of the disks are advectivelly trans-ported into the cool outer regions. Such dynamics cannot bepurely represented by any 1D viscous or diffusional models.Thus,
ν/D
ratio as direct measure of the mixing efficiencyis not appropriate in this picture. But, despite the beautyof this theory, it is based on the postulated anomalous
α
-viscosity, which is an apriory micro-scale quantity. If strongturbulence exists on the scale which is comparable to theheight of the disk, it may destroy such a circulation pattern.The question is now: which scenario of the disk evo-lution (viscous, diffusion or advective) is the right one innature? From theoretical arguments it is still challengingto tell. But we propose here an observational test that maypossibly distinguish between all these cases. This allows usto ‘measure’ effective
ν/D
for stars as bright as Herbig Aestars. Unfortunately this will not work for T Tauri starsand Brown Dwarfs, due to lack of spatial resolution.This paper is organized as follows. In Sect.2we re-derive the Pringle (1981) equation on the basis of a simplediffusion recipe, and we thereby obtain the Schmidt numberunder the assumption that the simple diffusion recipe de-scribes the true motion of gas parcels in the disk. In Sect.3we derive the Schmidt number in a different way, by assum-ing that each component of the fluid obeys the same equa-tion. We obtain the same Schmidt number as in Sect.2.In Sect.4we review how the Schmidt number affects theabundance of crystalline silicates in the inner disk regions.In Sect.5we present radiative transfer results for the mid-infrared spectra of spatially resolveddisks, and propose howthe study of such spectra might provide insight into whatis the value of the Schmidt number in real protoplanetarydisks.In this paper we focus purely on the diffusion of gas orof small particles that are well coupled to the gas. Biggerdust particles (in the size range of 1 cm or bigger) willdecouple from the turbulence and drift inward. This is an-other process which we do not include in this paper. Also,for simplicity we assume that the disk is vertically averagedand axially symmetric.
2. The diffusion equation for the Keplerian disk:derivation from a discrete model
In this section we will re-derive the well known equation of Pringle (1981) for the spreading of the accretion disk. Thederivation is based on the idea that the evolution of thedisk can be completely described by a special kind of tur-bulent motion of fluid parcels. In normal turbulence eacheddy of the disk has a deviation
δv
from the average veloc-ity of the fluid. These are generally non-Keplerian. But theconservation of angular momentum also prevents these gasparcels from drifting too far inward or outward, unless theyexchange angular momentum with neighboring gas parcels,which leads to angular momentum transfer in the wrong di-rection (see above). However, it is known that weakly mag-netized disks are unstable to the magneto-rotational insta-bility (Balbus & Hawley1991). Magnetic field lines enabletwo parcels at different radii to exchange angular momen-tum ‘over a distance’, if they are thread by the same fieldlines. We suggest an extremely simplified picture for themotions of these parcels: Consider two parcels, one slowlydrifting inward, the other slowly drifting outward. We as-sume that they both have a locally Keplerian angular ve-locity at all times. This means that the inward moving par-cel loses angular momentum while the other gains angu-lar momentum. We assume that neither parcel has angu-lar momentum exchange with its surroundings. So angularmomentum can only be conserved if the loss of angular mo-mentum of the inward moving parcel is compensated by thegain of angular momentum by the outward moving parcel.We invoke an unspecified long-range force that enables thisexchange of angular momentum between the two parcels.Physically, the only long-range force that might facilitate
 
Ya. Pavlyuchenkov and C. P. Dullemond: Dust crystallinity in protoplanetary disks 3
this is the Lorenz force, by magnetic fields, so we assumethat magnetic fields indeed provide this torque. The accre-tion and spreading of the disk is, in this picture, nothingother than a material diffusion: Packagesof gas being trans-ferred randomly, under the condition of local angular mo-mentum conservation. The radial mixing of a passive tracerin the disk is therefore an integral part of this. If the accre-tion/spreading of the disk is then viewed in a frameworkof ‘viscous disks’, then the
ν/D
ratio follows strictly fromthis derivation.This picture was also presented in Tutukov &Pavlyuchenkov (2004), where different types of astrophys-ical disks are described in frames of non-stationary diffu-sional models. However, they used only numerical modelsand did not provide the equation which governs the evolu-tion of such disks.In this section we will derive these equations and castthem in the standard form of viscous disk equations, whichyields the ratio
ν/D
. We are fully aware that the simplifica-tions of our assumptions are quite drastic and that realisticMHD simulations are presumably better and yield some-what different results. Nevertheless, we justify our approachin light of the fundamental nature of these equations.
2.1. The mass fluxes from the cell 
Let the mass of the disk be small enough so its self-gravitation can be neglected. The disk is assumed to begeometrically thin, Keplerian, and axially symmetric. Wedescribe the structure of the disk in terms of the surfacedensity Σ(
R
), where
R
is the distance from the axis of sym-metry.We introduce a grid
{
R
i
}
, which divides the domaininto annular elements which form the grid cells. We assumethat the cell size
h
i
=(
R
i
+1
-
R
i
) is equal to the
characteristicradial mean free path of a turbulent element 
. The surfacedensity Σ
i
is assumed to be constant within each cell. Alongwith Σ
i
, the average orbital Keplerian velocity is also de-termined in each grid cell,
i
, as well as the average radialcomponent of the turbulent velocity,
r,
turb
(
i
).Let us consider a current cell and denote the nearestcells A and B, see Fig.1. We suppose that in a time ∆
t
the mass
in the current cell moves to the neighboringcells due to turbulent motion. The matter leaving this cellis transferred to the two adjacent cells, and this redistri-bution of the mass must conserve mass and angular mo-mentum according to the philosophy described above. Thecorresponding equations for the system of three cells can
Fig.1.
The scheme of the mass transfer in the model of diffusion disk.
Fig.2.
The scheme of the mass transfer between two cellsin the model of diffusion diskbe written
=
a
+
b
(1)
MRV 
=
a
R
a
a
+
b
R
b
b
,
(2)where
a
and
b
are the Keplerian velocities for radii
R
a
and
R
b
, respectively.Here we will derive the differential equation which de-scribes the evolution of such a disk in the limit
h
0,assuming also for simplicity that
h
i
=
h
=const. Using theTaylor expansion of Eq. (2) we obtain (see Appendix A1):
a
=
2
1 +14
hR
(3)
b
=
2
1
14
hR
.
(4)Note that this looks as if mass is always transported out-ward, since
b
<
a
. However, as we shall see below, thetrue radial flux of matter may have either sign.
2.2. The mass flux across the cell boundary 
Denote
(
R
)
a
as a mass transferred from the cell with
R
into the cell
R
+
h
. Also, let
(
R
+
h
)
b
be a mass transferredfrom the cell
R
+
h
into the cell
R
, see Fig.2. Denote also
ab
as a total flux across the boundary between the cells:
ab
t
=
(
R
)
a
(
R
+
h
)
b
.
(5)Using the Taylor expansion of Eq. (5) (see Appendix A2)we find:
ab
t
=
12
hR
1
/
2
∂ ∂R
(
MR
1
/
2
)
.
(6)Note, that if the mass flux
(
R
)
does not depend on radius,then
ab
>
0, i.e. the mass is transferred outwards.One of the basic assumptions of our diffusion model isthe relation for the flux from the cell:
= 2
πR
·
Σ
·
r,
turb
·
t.
(7)If we substitute this relation into Eq. (6) and introducethe diffusion coefficient (see Appendix A3 for the choice of numerical coefficient):
D
=12
h
·
r,
turb
,
(8)

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