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Galactic Evolution of Silicon Isotopes- Application to Presolar SiC Grains From Meteorites

Galactic Evolution of Silicon Isotopes- Application to Presolar SiC Grains From Meteorites

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05/13/2013

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GalacticEvolutionofSiliconIsotopesApplicationtoPresolarSiCGrainsFromMeteorite
F.X.Timme
;
andD.D.Clayto
fxt@burn.uchicago.eduandclayton@gamma.phys.clemson.edu 
DepartmentofPhysicsandAstronomClemsonUniversitClemson,SC2963
EnricoFermiInstitutLaboratoryforAstrophysicsandSpaceResearcUniversityofChicago Chicago,IL6063Received:Accepted
 
ABSTRACT Wecalculateanddiscussthechemicalevolutionoftheisotopicsiliconabundancesinthein- terstellarmediumatdistancesandtimesappropriatetothebirthofthesolarsystem.Thishas severalobjectives,someofwhicharerelatedtoanomaloussiliconisotoperatioswithinpresolar grainsextractedfrommeteorites;namely:(1)WhatistherelativeimportanceforsiliconisotopicompositionsinthebulkISMofTypeIIsupernovae,TypeIasupernovae,andAGBstars?(2)Ar
2
Siand 
3
Siprimaryorsecondarynucleosynthesisproducts?(3)Inwhatisotopicdirectioninthree-isotopeplotdocore-collapsesupernovaeofdierentmassmovethesiliconisotopiccomposition?(4)Whydopresentcalculationsnotreproducethesolarratiosforsiliconisotopes,andwhat doesthatimposeuponstudiesofanomalousSiisotopesinmeteoriticsiliconcarbidegrains?(5)Archemical-evolutionfeaturesrecordedintheanomalousSiCgrains?Ouranswersareformulatedon thebasisoftheWoosley&Weaver(1995)supernovayieldsurvey.Renormalizationwiththecalcu- latedinterstellarmediumsiliconisotopiccompositionandsolarcompositionisasanimportantand recurringconceptofthispaper.Possibleinterpretationsofthesiliconisotopeanomaliesmeasured insingleSiCgrainsextractedfromcarbonaceousmeteoritesarethenpresented.Thecalculations suggestthatthetemporalevolutionoftheisotopicsiliconabundancesintheinterstellarmedium mayberecordedinthesegrainsSubjectheadings:ISM:Abundances{NuclearReactions,Nucleosynthesis,Abundances{Supernovae:General{Dust,Extinction 
 
1.INTRODUCTION Wehavetwomotivationsforstudyingthesiliconisotopicabundancehistoriesintheinterstellar mediumatdistancesandtimesappropriatetothebirthofthesolarsystem.Primarilyweseeconnectionsbetweenevolutionofthecalculatedsiliconisotopicratiosandtheanomaloussilicon isotopicratiosfoundinpresolarsiliconcarbidegrainsextractedfrommeteorites.Secondarilywassesscontributionstothesiliconisotopesfromthevarioussourcesthatproducethem.Individual grainswhichcondensedfromstellaroutowsandmigratedintothesolarnebula,foundtodayicarbonaceousmeteorites,hasopeneduniqueviewsonstellarnucleosynthesis,star-formationpro- cesses,localmixingprocessesintheinterstellarmedium(henceforthISM),andchemicalevolution (Clayton1982).ThemostclearcutcasesinvolvegrainspossessingsuchlargeisotopicanomaliethattheysurelyformedwithinejectafromspecicstarspriortomixingwiththeISM.ThemorphologyandcompositionofthesepresolargrainshavebeenreviewedbyAnders&Zinner(1993andbyOtt(1993)Therststardustgrainstobeisolatedwereofcarbonaceouscomposition,specicallydiamonds, siliconcarbide(henceforthSiC)andgraphite(Anders&Zinner1993).Acid-resistantresiduesof carbonaceousmeteoriteshadalreadybeenshownintheearly1960'stobeisotopicallyanomalous intheirxenoncontentknownasXe-HL(Reynolds&Turner1964).Otherxenonenrichmentwererecognizedtobedisplayingacrisps-processsignature(Clayton&Ward1978;Srinivasan &Anders1978).Subsequentisolation,purication,andcharacterizationofthatacid-resistant residuealloweditsidenticationasSiC(Bernatowiczetal.1987;Tang&Anders1988).Isotopistudiesofnotonlythenoblegasesbutalsocarbon,silicon,andothertraceelementswithsecondary ionmassspectrometersledtotheclearidenticationofhugeisotopicanomaliesinSiC(Lewiseal.1991;Anders&Zinner1993andreferencestherein).Theanomalousisotopesandthealmospures-processxenonmarkthesepresolarSiCgrainsashavingformedfromejectarichinthe nucleosynthesisproductsofasinglestar.ThenameSTARDUSThasbeensuggestedforhigqualitysinglegrainsgrowninstellarwinds,todistinguishingthemfromotheranomaloussamplesandarelatedname,SUNOCON,labelssupernovacondensatesgrownintheejectabeforeitimixedwiththeISM(Clayton1978)Stellarnucleosynthesismodelinghasbeenconcernedchieywithreproducingthebulkcompo- sitionofthesolarsystem,animportantconcerninitsownright,butindividualgrainswhicharisotopicallyanomalousyieldinformationaboutveryspecicstellaroriginsites.ForSiCgrains, anoriginsitewheresiliconandcarboncancondensewithoutbeingsignicantlyoxidizedseemnecessary.TheconsensuspicturewhichhastakenshapeisthatSiCgrainscondenseintheoutowfromintermediateandlowmassstarswhentheyenterthecarbonstarphase.Carbonstarsbeing denedasasymptoticgiantbranch(henceforthAGB)starsinwhichtheatmosphericcarbontoxygenratioisgreaterthanunity,andmolecularbandheadsof
areprominentinthespectra. ThisparadigmisbuiltonthecarefulisolationandcharacterizationofpresolarSiCgrainsbygroups atBern,Caltech,Chicago,andSt.Louis(Zinner,Tang,&Anders1987,1989;Tangetal.1989Stoneetal.1991;Lewisetal.1991;Viragetal.1992;Alexander1993;Hoppeetal.1994ab,1996Nittleretal.1995ab,1996).Wehaveprogressedfrompurelytheoreticalpredictions(Clayton 

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