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Published by: quijano_2008 on May 10, 2011
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A dozen years of clinical research explore benefitsof walnuts’ unique nutritional profile
California Walnuts
exceptional source of alaplant based omega-3s
Unique among nuts, walnuts contain the highest amounto alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), the plant-based omega-3atty acid (see graph to the right), required by the humanbody. As one o the best plant ood sources o omega-3s, aone-ounce serving o walnuts provides 2.6 grams o ALA. Agrowing body o science is beginning to uncover a variety obenets that ALA/omega-3s may provide to our bodies. Whilemost nuts contain monounsaturated ats, only walnuts arecomprised primarily o polyunsaturated at (13 grams out o18 grams total at). Dietary guidelines recommend that peo-ple keep total at intake between 20 to 35 percent o calories,with most ats coming rom sources o polyunsaturated andmonounsaturated atty acids.
antioxidant rankings
According to an evidence-based review, antioxidants help toprotect rom certain chronic diseases o aging, including cardio-vascular, neurological and anticarcinogenic ailments due to theirability to control ree radicals — known to negatively infuencehealthy aging.
Walnuts contain many antioxidants (13.126mmol/100 grams). In a 2006 study, 1113 dierent oods weretested and walnuts ranked second only to blackberries in termso antioxidant content (see graph on page 2).
Another study examining the levels o antioxidants in variousoods, reported at least 10 dierent antioxidants present inwalnuts (802 mg GAE o total phenols per ounce). Accordingto the study, a handul o walnuts has signicantly morephenols (an antioxidant) than a glass o apple juice (117 mg),a milk chocolate bar (205 mg), or a glass o red wine (372 mg).
Functional oods, herbs and nutraceuticals: towards biochemical mechanisms o healthy aging.
. 2004;5(5):275-89.
Content o Redox-active Compounds (ie, antioxidants) in Foods Consumed in the United States.
Am J Clin Nutr 
. 2006 Jul;84(1):95-135.
Walnut Polyphenolics Inhibit
J Nutr 
. 2001 Nov;131(11):2837-42.
Melatonin in Walnuts: Infuence on Levels o Melatonin and Total Antioxidant Capacity o Blood.
. 2005 Sep;21(9):920-4.
Melatonin is an antioxidant that is naturally ound in walnuts.
Research, led by melatonin expert Dr. Russel Reiter, publishedin the September 2005 issue o
Nutrition: The International Journal of Applied and Basic Nutritional Sciences 
, reportedthe calculate concentrations o melatonin in walnuts was3.5 +/- 1.0ng/g.
Scientifc Summary
protein, fiber, magnesium &phospherous too
In addition to antioxidants and essential ALA/omega-3 attyacids, an ounce o walnuts provides a convenient source oprotein (4 grams) and ber (2 grams). Most Americans don’tget enough dietary ber — which promotes healthy bowel unc-tion and helps you eel ull — a key component in maintaining ahealthy weight. Walnuts are also a good source o magnesium(44.79 mg/oz) and phosphorus (98.09 mg/oz) both impor-tant minerals involved the body’s processes and necessary orachieving optimal wellness.
smart for the heart
Eating a handul o walnuts every day is an easy way toboost your daily nutrition. For more than a dozen years,highly-respected scientists have shown diverse benets othis whole ood through clinical research. Because o thestrength o evidence supporting cardiovascular health, theU.S. Food and Drug Administration approved a qualiedhealth claim or walnuts in March 2004.
A review o ve clinical trials, published in the
Journal of Nutri- tion 
, evaluated the intent and quality o scientic evidence ora potential benecial health relationship between the intake owalnuts and the reduction and prevention o coronary heartdisease.
The review included controlled, peer-reviewed, hu-man clinical walnut intervention trials, involving approximately200 subjects representative o the 51% o the adult popula-tion in the United States at risk o coronary heart disease. Theintervention trials in this review consistently demonstratedwalnut consumption as a key component in lowering bloodcholesterol concentrations in study participants, thus support-ing walnuts as part o a heart-healthy diet.A cross-over design study, published in the
Journal of American College of Cardiology 
, randomized 12 healthy adult subjectsand 12 with hypercholesterolemia to either a high-at meal towhich 25 grams o olive oil or 40 grams o walnuts were added.Brachial artery unction was evaluated beore and ater thetest meals. Flow mediated dilation was better ater the walnutmeal in both groups. E-selection, an infammatory marker, waslower ater the walnut meal.
Penn State research published in the
Journal of Nutrition 
 showed that eating walnuts reduced C-reactive Protein (CRP)and harmul plaque adhesion molecules, two signicant mark-ers o infammation in arteries. This human controlled eedingstudy evaluated the eects o ALA/omega-3s on multiplecardiovascular disease risk actors. Those consuming a diethigh in polyunsaturated atty acids, especially ALA/omega-3s,exhibited decreased lipid and lipoprotein levels and vascularanti-infammatory eects.
good for bone health
Bone health improved with alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) omega-3consumption in a clinical research study published in theJanuary 2007 issue o
Nutrition Journal 
This rst controlledhuman eeding study evaluated the eect o dietary ALA/ome-ga-3s provided by walnuts and faxseed, on bone turnover, asassessed by measurements o biomarkers. 23 participants ol-lowed three dierent diets over a six week time rame or each:1) Average American Diet, 2) Linoleic Diet and 3) ALA Diet.Specic markers measuring bone metabolism and resorptionwere measured during each diet. The researchers concludedthat the “results indicate that plant sources o dietary omega-3polyunsaturated atty acids may have a protective eect onbone metabolism via a decrease in bone resorption in thepresence o consistent levels o bone ormation.”
high nutrition ranking
On the NuVal™ Nutritional Scoring System
(a consumer nutri-tion guide to be used by many grocery store chains) walnutsreceived 82 points on a 100 point scale, an excellent scoreamong oods and nuts (see graph below). Scores are obtainedusing the Overall Nutritional Quality Index (ONQI) — an algo-rithm designed to generate a single, summative score or the“overall nutritional quality” o a ood based on the micronutri-ent and macronutrient composition o the item. Thirty dierentnutrient actors are considered into the equation includingvitamins, minerals, protein, carbohydrates, at and antioxidants.Items are then stratied into a rank order o relative nutritious-ness both universally (i.e., across all ood categories) and withinspecic ood categories (e.g., breads, cereals, rozen desserts).
nutritious food for peoplewith diabetes
A study published in 2004 reported a positive eect o amoderate-at diet, inclusive o walnuts, on blood lipid prolesin patients with type 2 diabetes. This parallel randomizedcontrolled trial included 58 men and women, ages 35–75, di-agnosed with type 2 diabetes at least one year prior. The studycompared three dietary advice groups each with 30 percentenergy as at: 1) low at, 2) modied low at, and 3) modiedlow at, inclusive o 30g walnuts (equivalent to around 8–10nuts) per day. The walnut group achieved a 10% reduction inLDL cholesterol and a greater increase in HDL (good) choles-terol levels than the other two treatment groups. The research-ers concluded that adding walnuts to the diet improved theblood lipid levels o the patients with type 2 diabetes.
In addition, Harvard researchers examined the associationbetween nut consumption and risk o type 2 diabetes in a largeprospective cohort study o 83,818 women rom the Nurses’Health Study aged 34–59; with no history o diabetes, cardio-vascular disease or cancer. Subjects completed a validateddietary questionnaire at baseline in 1980 and were ollowed upor 16 years. They ound that women who ate one-ounce por-tions o nuts, such as walnuts, or peanut butter ve times ormore each week had a signicant lower risk o developing type 2diabetes compared to the women who rarely or never atenuts. Based on these ndings, the researchers concluded thathigher nut and peanut butter consumption may have helpedlower the risk o type 2 diabetes in these women. However, toavoid increasing caloric intake, regular nut consumption canbe recommended as a replacement or rened carbohydrateproducts or red or processed meats.
tasty tool for weightmanagement
It turns out the good at (2.6 grams ALA/omega-3s per ounce),ber (2 grams per ounce) and protein (4 grams per ounce) inwalnuts aid in satiety, an important actor in successul weightmanagement. A 2001 Loma Linda University study ound thatregular walnut consumption does not lead to weight gain instudy participants. This small randomized crossover eedingtrial included 10 men with hypercholesterolemia. Participantswere given one o three diets to ollow over a six week period:1) control, 2) Mediterranean-type cholesterol-lowering diet,and 3) a diet o similar composition in which walnuts replaced35 percent o energy rom unsaturated at. Ater six months
“Supportive but not conclusive research shows that eating 1.5 ounces o walnuts per day, as part o a low saturated at and low cholesterol diet, and not resulting in increased caloricintake may reduce the risk o coronary heart disease.”
The Scientic Evidence or a Benecial Health Relationship Between Walnuts and Coronary Heart Disease.
J Nutr 
. 2002 May;132(5):1062S-1101S.
Acute Eects o High-Fat Meals Enriched with Walnuts or Olive Oil on Postprandial Endothelial Function.
J Am Coll Cardiol 
. 2006 Oct 17;48(8):1666-71.
Dietary Alpha-Linolenic Acid Reduces Infammatory and Lipid Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Hypercholesterolemic Men and Women.
J Nutr 
. 2004 Nov;134(11):2991-7.
An increase in dietary n-3 atty acids decreases a marker o bone resorption in humans.
Nutrition Journal 
. 2007 Jan;6:2.
Including Walnuts in a Low-Fat/Modied-Fat Diet Improves HDL Cholesterol-to-Total Cholesterol Ratios in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes.
Diabetes Care 
. 2004 Dec;27(12):2777-83.
Nut and Peanut Butter Consumption and Risk o Type 2 Diabetes.
. 2002 Nov 27;288(20):2554-60.
NuVal Nutritional Scoring System
   N  u   V  a   l   R  a  n   k   i  n  g
    P   u   m   p    k    i   n    S   e   e   d   s    (     f   r   e   s    h   c   o   o    k   e   d    )
    F    l   a    x   s   e   e   d    O    i    l     W   a    l   n   u    t   s    (    r   a   w    )    A    l   m   o   n   d   s    (    r   a   w ,    d   r    i   e   d ,    u   n    b    l   a   n   c    h   e   d    )    A    l   m   o   n   d   s    (    d   r    y   -   r   o   a   s    t   e   d ,    u   n   s   a    l    t   e   d    )    P   e   c   a   n   s ,    r   a   w    (    d   r    i   e   d    )    P    i   s    t   a   c    h    i   o    N   u    t   s    (    r   a   w ,    d   r    i   e   d    )    A    l   m   o   n   d   s    (     b    l   a   n   c    h   e   d    )    F    i    l    b   e   r    t   s    (     b    l   a   n   c    h   e   d    )    F    i    l    b   e   r    t   s    (    r   o   a   s    t   e   d ,    u   n   s   a    l    t   e   d    )    S   u   n    f    l   o   w   e   r    S   e   e   d   s    F    l   a    x   s   e   e   d    P   e   a   n   u    t   s ,    r   a   w    (    d   r    i   e   d    )    R   a    i   s    i   n   s  -   u   n   c   o   o    k   e   d    H   o   n   e    y     R   o   a   s    t   e   d    P   e   a   n   u    t   s    C   a   n   o    l   a    O    i    l    C   a   s    h   e   w   s    C   a   n   o    l   a    O    i    l    b   a   s   e   d    t   u    b   m   a   r   g    a   r    i   n   e    M   a   c   a   d   a   m    i   a    N   u    t   s ,    r   a   w    (    d   r    i   e   d    )    U   n   s   w   e   e    t   e   n   e   d    D   r    i   e   d    C   o   c   o   n   u    t    P   r   e    t   z   e    l   s    C    h   o   c   o    l   a    t   e    P    i   e   c   e   s ,     C    h    i   p   s ,     M   o   r   s   e    l   s

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