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8000 BCE-600 CE Classical Civilizations

8000 BCE-600 CE Classical Civilizations

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Published by Lucy Wang

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Published by: Lucy Wang on May 10, 2011
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The Main Societies, Kingdoms, Empires, 8000 BCE-600 CERIVER VALLEY CIVILIZATIONSMesopotamian Societies-
3500 to 2000 BCE river systems in Middle East, India, China made the first fourcivilizations-Sumerian Babylonian civilization in Mesopotamia-Sumerian Babylonian lay between Fertile Crescent, the Tigris and Euphrates rivers-Sumerian Babylonian practiced large agriculture and started settling in 8000 BCE-Sumerians were first in Mesopotamia followed by Babylonians that had politicaldominance-Mesopotamians had many cities and were governed by a small class of priests andkings-Sumerians had first written language, Cuneiform-wedged characters in clay-King Hammurabi had first law code, harsh punishments, but valued rules andregulations to be followed-people of Mesopotamia built ziggurats-temples to honor gods and goddesses-polytheistic religion-Mesopotamians developed base-60 number system-great with trading and had economy into the Middle East and Indian Ocean
-civilization was found on the banks of the Nile River-dependency of the water of the Nile River-agriculture settling, 5500 BCE-King Menes in 3100 BCE united Southern and Northern Egypt-Political breakdown in Egypt: Old Kingdom, First Intermediate, Middle Kingdom,Second Intermediate, New Kingdom-900 BCE most of Egypt had no independence-women subordinate to men and had domestic responsibilities of money andteaching children-women owned property, could divorce-Queen Hatshepsut was the pharaoh of Egypt-polytheistic religion-Egyptian book of the dead-talks about Egypt’s afterlife and the tombs-written script hieroglyphics developed 3100 B.C.E.-good metalworking-great knowledge about medicine, math, and astronomy
Indus Valley Civilization
-Indus river civilization developed on coast of the Arabian sea and is present dayPakistan and Northwestern India-developed around 2600 BCE-little knowledge about their religion, culture, declines-very widespread and urban-thought to be very unified and centralized
-lots of cities –largest: Mohenjo and Harappa-trade extended beyond the civilizations borders-metalworking was strong-thought to have declined due to invasion from Aryans or to environmental factors
Early China and the Yellow River(Shang then Zhou)-
river valley civilization came about along the Yellow River-Yellow and Yangtze rivers centered on agriculture, and they held social and politicalunity-2000 BCE China had bronze working-Shang dynasty-started in Yellow river 1750 BCE, warrior aristocracy-traded jade, ivory, silk-pictograms were the Shang system of writing- worship of ancestors and fortune telling was in religion-King Wu was ruler of longest lasting Zhou Dynasty 806 years-overthrew the Shang-Zhou considered to be “the warring states period” and had internal decline-Zhou had innovation, some conserving of the Shang-600 BCE , Chinese had iron tools-Zhou had Mandate of Heaven-if a ruler governed fairly he would have a divine rightto rule-Confucianism and Daoism developed during this time
-not civilized and not politically united-first ethnic group in Europe that was large scale-strongest influence was in Spain, France, British Isles-no written language-practice oral tradition-polytheistic and priests were called druids
Hitties dominated Mesopotamian region in 1200’s BCE-Assyrians made the world’s first empire had new weapons-Nebuchadnezzar was the ruler of the Neo-Babylonians (Chaldeans) who conqueredAssyrians-Nebuchadnezzar made hanging gardens of Babylon-Persians made the Persian Empire one of the largest ever before Alexander theGreat conquered-Cyrus the great, first Persian ruler-single currency, postal system, network of roads-Zoroastrianism-faith of the Persian people, Persians had religious tolerant-Macedonia and Alex the Great conquer Persia, 331 BCE-Hebrews in Israel under Abraham were first monotheistic religion-Jews were enslaved by Egypt, conquered by Assyrians, taken over by Neo-Babylonians (Chaldeans)
-Phoenicians were on the east coast of Mediterranean, had economy based onpurple dye and timber-Phoenicians had first alphabet and city of Carthage rivaled Rome-Lydians invented metal coins
GREECE AND ROMEEarly Greek History
-Aegean civilization (island of Crete) and the Mycenaean civilization (Greekmainland)-both civilizations were trading societies-Mycenaean fought in the Trojan War-the two civilizations joined to be called the Greeks, or Hellenes-joining of two were the “Greek dark ages”
Greek City States
-Greeks were on islands and couldn’t make a single united nation-city states were all independent of each other and were created to compensate forthe island locations-Corinth, Thebes, Sparta, Athens all city states-Sparta had strong slaveholding dictatorship, had Greek’s most effective and fearedarmy-Athens was politically and culturally advanced, had trade and power from navalwork-most politics in Greek city states were family oligarchies-slavery common in Greek city states-subordinate women-Athens had first democracy and Pericles was the peak of democracy, no womeninvolved
The Classical Period (500-338 BCE) and Age of Alex the Great
-Two major wars between Persians and Greeks where Persia invaded Greece andSpartan and Athens fought back-Peloponnesian War-civil conflict for power of Greek world between Spartans andAthens-Sparta won the war over Athens-Greek city states were weakened significantly by the outcome of the war-Alexander conquered the Greeks (creating Macedonia-Greek kingdom preservingGreek culture) then crossed Asia to conquer the Persian Empire-Alexandria, city in Egypt became center of learning and trade under Alex the Great
Hellenic (Greek) Culture

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