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04-5792[1]

04-5792[1]

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COMPRESSED EARTHBLOCKS:MANUAL OF PRODUCTION
by Vincent Rigassi, CRATerre-EAG
Volume I. Manual of production
 
A Publication of the Deutsches Zentrum für Entwicklungstechnologien - GATE in: DeutscheGesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit(GTZ) GmbH in coordination with BASIN - 1985
Acknowledgements
Deutsches Zentrum für Entwicklungstechnologien - GATEDeutsches Zentrum für Entwicklungstechnologien - GATE - stands for German AppropriateTechnology Exchange. It was founded in 1978 as a special division of the Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) GmbH. GATE is a centre for the dissemination and promotionof appropriate technologies for developing countries. GATE defines „Appropriate technologies“ asthose which are suitable and acceptable in the light of economic, social and cultural criteria. Theyshould contribute to socio-economic development whilst ensuring optimal utilization of resourcesand minimal detriment to the environment. Depending on the case at hand a traditional, intermediateor highly-developed can be the „appropriate" one. GATE focusses its work on the key areas:- Dissemination of Appropriate Technologies: Collecting, processing and disseminating informationon technologies appropriate to the needs of the developing countries: ascertaining the technologicalrequirements of Third World countries: support in the form of personnel, material and equipment topromote the development and adaptation of technologies for developing countries.- Environmental Protection. The growing importance of ecology and environmental protectionrequire better coordination and harmonization of projects. In order to tackle these tasks moreeffectively, a coordination center was set up within GATE in 1985.GATE has entered into cooperation agreements with a number of technology centres in Third Worldcountries.GATE offers a free information service on appropriate technologies for all public and privatedevelopment institutions in developing countries, dealing with the development, adaptation,introduction and application of technologies.Deutsche Gesellschaft fur Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) GmbHThe government-owned GTZ operates in the field of Technical Cooperation. 2200 German expertsare working together with partners from about 100 countries of Africa, Asia and Latin America inprojects covering practically every sector of agriculture, forestry, economic development, socialservices and institutional and material infrastructure. - The GTZ is commissioned to do this workboth by the Government of the Federal Republic of Germany and by other government or semi-government authorities.
 
2The GTZ activities encompass:- appraisal, technical planning, control and supervision of technical cooperation projectscommissioned by the Government of the Federal Republic or by other authorities- providing an advisory service to other agencies also working on development projects- the recruitment, selection, briefing, assignment, administration of expert personnel and their welfare and technical backstopping during their period of assignment- provision of materials and equipment for projects, planning work, selection, purchasing andshipment to the developing countries- management of all financial obligations to the partner-country.Deutsches Zentrum fur Entwicklungstechnologien - GATEin: Deutsche Gesellschaft fur Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) GmbHP. O. Box 5180D-65726 EschbornFederal Republic of GermanyTel.: (06196) 79-0Telex: 41523-0 gtz dFax: (06196) 797352Scientific supervision: Patrice Doat, teaching architect; Hubert Guillaud, research architect; HugoHouben, research engineer Author: Vincent Rigassi, architectAdditional assistance: Pascal Odul, engineer architect; Thierry Joffroy, architect; Alexandre Douline,senior technician; Serge Maïni, architect; Sébastien d’Ornano, engineer; Philippe Garnier, architect;François Vitoux, teaching architectIllustrations: Nicolas Schweizer, illustrator; Elena Ochoa, architect; Patrick Idelman, draughtsmanDocumentation: Marie-France RuaultFormat: Régine Rivière; Christèle ChauvinPublishing coordination: Titane Galer English Translation: Claire Norton© PhotographsCRATTerre-EAG: Dario Angulo, Patrice Doat, Sébastien d’Ornano, Hubert, Hugo Guillaud, HugoHouben, Thierry Joffroy, Serge Maïni, Pascal Odul, Vincent RigassiWith the following exceptions: p. 30 photograph 1 FOTOMEDIA Ltd India, p. 70 photograph 5 :Pierrot; p. 82 photographs 1 and 2; Bruno Pignal; p. 86 photograph 3: Christian Lignon; p. 86photograph 4: Philippe Romagnolo© Drawings: CRATerre-EAGDie Deutsche Bibiothek - CIP-EinheitsaufnahmeCompressed earth blocks:A publication of Deutsches Zentrum für Entwicklungstechnologien - GATE, a division of theDeutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) GmbH in coordination with theBuilding Advisory Service and InformationNetwork - BASIN/ (Engl. Transl.: Claire Norton). - Braunschweig: Vieweg.NE: Norton, Claire (Übers.); Deutsches Zentrum für Entwicklungstechnologien <Eschborn>Vol 1. Manual of production / Vincent Rigassi. (III.: Nicolas Schweizer; Patrick Idelman). - 1995ISBN 3-528-02079-2NE: Rigassi, Vincent
 
3
Content
Acknowledgements...............................................................................................1
 
Preface...................................................................................................................5
 
Introduction...........................................................................................................6
 
Historical background.....................................................................................................6
 
Advantages of cebs........................................................................................................7
 
Key questions.................................................................................................................9
 
Production....................................................................................................................10
 
Production lines............................................................................................................13
 
The material.................................................................................................................16
 
Principle CEB characteristics........................................................................................18
 
Launching production...................................................................................................20
 
The development of the material..................................................................................23
 
Earth - An architectural tradition...................................................................................24
 
1.Soil.....................................................................................................................25
 
Soil for building purposes.............................................................................................25
 
Properties.....................................................................................................................26
 
Typical soils..................................................................................................................28
 
Behaviour of soils in the presence of water..................................................................31
 
Hydrous states of a soil................................................................................................32
 
Prospecting..................................................................................................................33
 
Identification: Laboratory tests......................................................................................34
 
Identification: Field tests...............................................................................................37
 
2.Stabilization......................................................................................................41
 
General considerations.................................................................................................41
 
Different ways of stabilizing and stabilizers...................................................................42
 
Cement stabilization.....................................................................................................44
 
Lime stabilization..........................................................................................................46
 
Calculating how much stabilizer to use.........................................................................49
 
3.Equipment.........................................................................................................52
 
Selection criteria...........................................................................................................52
 
Products.......................................................................................................................54
 
Uses.............................................................................................................................55
 
Choosing a press..........................................................................................................57
 
Choosing soil preparation equipment...........................................................................60
 
4.Production layout.............................................................................................63
 
Definition of the production line....................................................................................63
 
Types of equipment......................................................................................................65
 
Manufacturing means...................................................................................................66
 
Types of production line...............................................................................................67
 
Investments..................................................................................................................67
 

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