Induced formation of terrestrial planets 3
2.
THE DYNAMICAL SHAKEUP MODEL
We begin with a brief summary of the terrestrial planet formation model of Nagasawa et al.(2005). The key to this
model is that the dissipating gas disk interacts with the embedded protoplanets in two diﬀerent ways: It damps theireccentricities, and it changes their apsidal precession rate. The former eﬀect is due to tidal torques, and operates ona timescale
τ
e
,
tide
≡−
e
˙
e
≃
M
∗
M
p
M
∗
Σ
g
a
2
H a
4
Ω
−
1
k
(1)where
M
p
is the body’s mass,
a
its semimajor axis, and Σ
,
H
and Ω
the gas surface density, disk scale height andKeplerian angular velocity, respectively, at
r
=
a
(Ward 1989,1993;Artymowicz 1993). Tidal interaction, speciﬁcally
the mismatch between inner and outer Lindblad torques, can also remove angular momentum
J
from the bodies’orbits on a timescale
τ
J
,
tide
≡−
J/
˙
J
, in what is commonly called type I migration. Twodimensional calculations in anunperturbed thin disk produce
τ
J
,
tide
∼
10
2
τ
e
,
tide
⊕
objects embedded in a gas disk signiﬁcantly depleted below its MMSNsurface density—the latter eﬀect is relatively unimportant and for simplicity we neglect it. However, even with˙
J
= 0,eccentricity damping alone will cause a protoplanet to migrate inward by removing energy from its orbit. Setting˙
J
=
GM
∗
M
p
˙
a
√
1
−
e
2
2
√
a
−√
ae
˙
e
√
1
−
e
2
= 0
,
(2)we obtain an expression for the migration rate in terms of the eccentricitydamping timescale:˙
a
=
ae
2
(1
−
e
2
)2
t
e,
tide
(3)We now consider what happens when this protoplanet are also subject to secular perturbations. The perturbationsfrom the giant planets plus the gas disk induce a net precession
g
p
=
g
p
,
J
+
g
p
,
S
+
g
p
,
disk
.
(4)Interaction with a planet changes the protoplanet’s eccentricity. The eccentricity rate of change due to Jupiter is˙
e
p
,
J
=
−
C
p
,
J

g
p
,
J
sin
η
(5)where
η
≡
(
̟
p
−
̟
J
) is the angle between the pericenters of the orbits,
C
p
,
J
≡−
b
(2)3
/
2
(
α
)
/b
(1)3
/
2
(
α
),
b
kl
are the Laplacecoeﬃcients, and
α
=
a
p
/a
J
. Thus, variations in
e
p
are sinusoidal in general. However, when the protoplanet approachesthe
ν
5
secular resonance with Jupiter,
g
p
≈
g
J
, so that
η
varies slowly and, for
π < η <
2
π
, the protoplanet’s eccentricitygrows monotonically. Jupiter itself precesses due to its interaction with Saturn as well as the disk (neglecting the eﬀectof the protoplanets):
g
J
=
g
J
,
S
+
g
J
,
disk
. Thus, the condition for the
ν
5
secular resonance is
g
p
,
J
+
g
p
,
S
+
g
p
,
disk
=
g
J
,
S
+
g
J
,
disk
(6)Similarly, the secular resonance with Saturn, called
ν
6
, occurs when
g
p
,
J
+
g
p
,
S
+
g
p
,
disk
=
g
S
,
J
+
g
S
,
disk
.
(7)The secular perturbations from Jupiter and Saturn modulate the protoplanet’s eccentricity without themselves modifying its semimajor axis. In other words, secular interactions do the opposite of the eccentricity damping prescription weassume above: they change only angular momentum, not energy, of the protoplanet’s orbit. If the disk is simultaneouslyexerting tidal damping on the body on a timescale
τ
e,
tide
, the net eccentricity rate of change is˙
e
p
= ˙
e
p
,
J
+ ˙
e
p
,
S
−
eτ
e,
tide
.
(8)As long as a nonzero eccentricity is maintained, the body continues to migrate inward as per Eq.3.As discussed inNagasawa et al.(2005), under the right conditions the combination of resonant eccentricity excitation
with the orbital decay induced by gas disk eccentricity damping (Eq.3)will cause a body to temporarily keep pacewith an inwardsweeping secular resonance. They show that the minimum semimajor axis to which the
ν
5
resonancecan drive a body is roughly given by
a
∼
2
τ
n
Myr
−
1
/
4
M M
⊕
−
1
/
4
e
J
0
.
05
−
1
/
2
AU (9)where
τ
n
is the gas nebula depletion timescale.Migration of bodies ahead of a secular resonance is somewhat analogous to capture and migration in meanmotionresonances, however there are some important distinctions. First, the captured body exchanges only angular momentum with its captor; to exchange energy and actually migrate requires an additional interaction, in our case tidaldamping by the disk. Secondly, since the captured body always loses energy to the disk, only inward migration ispossible; this means that in a depleting disk the outwardsweeping secular resonances (e.g. the
ν
5
at
a > a
J
) are
not
able to entrain bodies. Most importantly, however, secular resonances have a much farther reach than meanmotionresonances. As an illustration, the presentday location of the
ν
5
, 0.6 AU, corresponds to a 25:1 meanmotion resonancewith Jupiter; being of 24th order, this resonance is extremely weak and negligible for most practical purposes.