Welcome to Scribd. Sign in or start your free trial to enjoy unlimited e-books, audiobooks & documents.Find out more
Download
Standard view
Full view
of .
Look up keyword
Like this
1Activity
0 of .
Results for:
No results containing your search query
P. 1
A celestial gamma-ray foreground due to the albedo of small solar system bodies and a remote probe of the interstellar cosmic ray spectrum

A celestial gamma-ray foreground due to the albedo of small solar system bodies and a remote probe of the interstellar cosmic ray spectrum

Ratings: (0)|Views: 9|Likes:
Published by ardeegee

More info:

Published by: ardeegee on Sep 05, 2008
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

05/09/2014

pdf

text

original

 
Draft version March 19, 2008
Preprint typeset using L
A
TEX style emulateapj v. 3/25/03
A CELESTIAL GAMMA-RAY FOREGROUND DUE TO THE ALBEDO OF SMALL SOLAR SYSTEM BODIESAND A REMOTE PROBE OF THE INTERSTELLAR COSMIC RAY SPECTRUM
Igor V. Moskalenko
1
Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305
Troy A. Porter
Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064
Seth W. Digel
1
Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025
Peter F. Michelson
1
Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305
andJonathan F. Ormes
Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Denver, Denver, CO 80208
Draft version March 19, 2008 
ABSTRACTWe calculate the
γ 
-ray albedo flux from cosmic-ray (CR) interactions with the solid rock and icein Main Belt asteroids (MBAs), Jovian and Neptunian Trojan asteroids, and Kuiper Belt objects(KBOs) using the Moon as a template. We show that the
γ 
-ray albedo for the Main Belt, Trojans,and Kuiper Belt strongly depends on the small-body size distribution of each system. Based on ananalysis of the
Energetic Gamma Ray Experiment Telescope
(EGRET) data we infer that the diffuseemission from the MBAs, Trojans, and KBOs has an integrated flux of less than
6
×
10
6
cm
2
s
1
(100–500 MeV), which corresponds to
12 times the Lunar albedo, and may be detectable bythe forthcoming
Gamma Ray Large Area Space Telescope
(GLAST). If detected by GLAST, it canprovide unique direct information about the number of small bodies in each system that is difficult toassess by any other method. Additionally, the KBO albedo flux can be used to probe the spectrum of CR nuclei at close-to-interstellar conditions. The orbits of MBAs, Trojans, and KBOs are distributednear the ecliptic, which passes through the Galactic center and high Galactic latitudes. Therefore,the asteroid
γ 
-ray albedo has to be taken into account when analyzing weak
γ 
-ray sources close to theecliptic, especially near the Galactic center and for signals at high Galactic latitudes, such as the ex-tragalactic
γ 
-ray emission. The asteroid albedo spectrum also exhibits a 511 keV line due to secondarypositrons annihilating in the rock. This may be an important and previously unrecognized celestialforeground for the
INTErnational Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory 
(INTEGRAL) observationsof the Galactic 511 keV line emission including the direction of the Galactic center.
Subject headings:
elementary particles — Kuiper Belt — minor planets, asteroids — Galaxy: bulge— cosmic rays — gamma-rays: theory
1.
introduction
The populations of small solar system bodies (SSSB) inthe asteroid belt between Mars and Jupiter, Jovian andNeptunian Trojans, and in the Kuiper Belt beyond Nep-tune’s orbit (often called also trans-Neptunian objects –TNOs) remain the least explored members of the solarsystem. A majority of the MBAs and KBOs have theirorbits distributed near the ecliptic with a FWHM of theorder of 10
in ecliptic latitude (Binzel et al. 1999;Brown 2001). The spatial and size distributions of these objectsprovides important information about the dynamicalevolution of the solar system. Extending our knowledgeof the size distribution of these objects below current sub-kilometer size limits of optical (e.g.,Ivezi´c et al. 2001;
1
Also Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology,Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94309
Wiegert et al. 2007) and infrared (e.g.,Tedesco & Desert2002;Yoshida et al. 2003) measurements would provide additional information on the accretion/collision and de-pletion processes that formed the populations of SSSBs
2
.In this paper we show that the CR-induced
γ 
-ray albedoof these systems may be bright enough to be detectedwith a
γ 
-ray telescope such as GLAST and/or INTE-GRAL and/or Soft Gamma-ray Detector (SGD) aboardthe NeXT satellite (Takahashi et al. 2006) (see our es-timates below), and can allow us to probe the size dis-tribution of SSSBs down to a few metres. Additionally,the
γ 
-ray emission of these systems may comprise a “dif-fuse”
γ 
-ray foreground that should be taken into accountwhen evaluating the flux and spectra of 
γ 
-ray sources
2
We note thatBabich et al. (2007) have suggested a method toplace constraints upon the mass, distance, and size distribution of TNOs using spectral distortions of the CMB.
 
2 Moskalenko et al.near the ecliptic. Our preliminary results are presentedinMoskalenko et al.(2008). The Galactic center is a region crowded with
γ 
-raysources and is one of the preferred places to look for
γ 
-raysignatures of dark matter (DM). An extensive literatureon the subject exists, e.g.,Bergstr¨om et al.(1998), Zaharijas & Hooper(2006),Finkbeiner & Weiner (2007),Hooper et al.(2008),Baltz et al.(2008); also references in these papers. The ecliptic crosses theGalactic equator near the Galactic center almostperpendicularly with inclination
86
.
5
, and underes-timation of the SSSB albedo foreground may lead toerrors in the analysis of weak or extended sources in thisregion.The Galactic center region also harbors the enigmaticsource of the 511 keV positron annihilation line observedby the
Oriented Scintillation Spectrometer Experiment 
(OSSE) (e.g.,Purcell et al. 1997) and INTEGRAL (e.g.,Kn¨odlseder et al. 2005;Weidenspointner et al. 2006). The distribution of the annihilation line does not matchthe distribution of any positron source candidate, e.g.,pulsars, supernova remnants, binaries, radioactive iso-topes, such as
26
Al, etc. A number of excellent dis-cussions on the origin of this emission are availablein the literature, ranging from positron focusing bythe regular Galactic magnetic field to DM annihila-tion (Finkbeiner & Weiner 2007;Guessoum et al. 2005; Hooper et al. 2008;Jean et al. 2006;Prantzos 2006, and references therein). Our calculations (detailed below) in-dicate the SSSB CR-induced albedo spectrum should ex-hibit a 511 keV line due to secondary positrons annihi-lating in the rock. Since the target material (rock, ice) issolid, the line has to be very narrow. This emission pro-duces a previously unrecognized celestial foreground tothe 511 keV flux including the direction of the Galacticcenter.At higher energies, above
30 MeV, regions at highGalactic latitudes are conventionally used to derive thelevel of the extragalactic
γ 
-ray emission by compar-ing a model of the diffuse Galactic emission to thepoint-source-subtracted skymaps and extrapolating tozero model flux (e.g.,Sreekumar et al. 1998;Strong et al. 2004). The remainder is assumed to represent thelevel of the isotropic, presumably extragalactic emission.However, recent studies have predicted another impor-tant foreground component with a broad distributionon the sky originating from the inverse Compton scat-tering of solar photons by CR electrons in the helio-sphere (Moskalenko et al. 2006;Orlando & Strong 2007), which has to be included in the analysis of the diffuseemission. A reanalysis of the EGRET data revealedthis broad component, in agreement with the predictions(Orlando et al. 2007). Since the ecliptic passes throughhigh Galactic latitudes, the SSSB albedo flux also mayneed to be taken into account when analysing the weakextragalactic component.
2.
small solar system bodies
The asteroid mass and size distributions are thought tobe governed by collisional evolution and accretion. Col-lisions between asteroids give rise to a cascade of frag-ments, shifting mass toward smaller sizes, while slowaccretion leads to the growth of the latter. The firstcomprehensive analytical description of such a collisionalcascade is given byDohnanyi(1969). Under the assump- tions of scaling of the collisional response parameters andan upper cutoff in mass, the relaxed size and mass dis-tributions approach power-laws:
dN 
=
am
k
dm
(1)
dN 
=
br
n
dr,
(2)where
m
is the asteroid mass,
r
is the asteroid radius, and
a,b,k,n
are constants. These equilibrium distributionsextend over all size and mass ranges of the populationexcept near its high-mass end. The constants in eqs. (1),(2) are not independent. If all asteroids have the samedensity
ρ
, one obtains
n
= 3
k
2 and
b
= 3
a
(4
πρ/
3)
1
k
(see eqs.[3],[4]). For a pureDohnanyicascade
k
= 11
/
6and
n
= 3
.
5.However, collisional response parameters are not size-independent, e.g., the energy per unit target mass deliv-ered by the projectile required for catastrophic disrup-tion of the target (the so-called critical specific energy)depends on the radius of the body, and the single power-laws (eqs.[1], [2]) break. Even though the sizes of aster- oids generally can not be directly observed (except by asmall number of asteroidsstudied by spacecraftflybys, bystellar occultation, or those well observed by radar) andare instead estimated using apparent magnitude, opticaland infrared albedos, and distances, the information col-lected on a large sample of MBAs
3
seems to confirm thatthe real distribution departs from a single power law, atleast for objects larger than a few kilometers. Smallersizes are very difficult to detect, and one has bear inmind the observational bias of the incompleteness of thesmall (dim) asteroid sample. Though de-biasing can beattempted (e.g.,Jedicke & Metcalfe 1998), a large ambi-guity still remains.Figure1shows the MBA size distributions as publishedin the literature and those used in this paper. For theMBAs larger than diameter
D
(km),Binzel et al.(1999) give
(
>
D
) = 1
.
9
×
10
6
D
2
.
52
(the authors do not givethe range of sizes, so we adopted a cut at
D
0
.
5 km).Tedesco & Desert(2002) give log
(
>
D
) = (5
.
9324
±
0
.
0016)
(1
.
5021
±
0
.
045)log
D
for 0
.
2 km
<
D
<
2 kmbased on
Infrared Space Observatory 
(ISO) observations.Using a sample of more than 6
×
10
4
MBAs to a limitingmagnitude of 
21,Jedicke & Metcalfe(1998) found a change in the slope of the cumulative distribution from –2.25 for 1 km
D
10 km to –4.00 for 10 km
D
few10s of km. Based on observations of 
13000 MBAs bythe Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS),Ivezi´c et al.(2001) found that the cumulative size distribution resembles abroken power-law,
D
2
.
3
for 0.4 km
r
5 km,and
D
4
for 5 km
r
40 km, and is indepen-dent of the heliospheric distance. Finally,Tedesco et al.(2005) gives a fit to data between 1 km
D
100 km,log
(
>
D
) = 6
.
275
±
0
.
013
(3
.
214
±
0
.
056)log
D
+(0
.
974
±
0
.
066)log
2
D
(0
.
182
±
0
.
022)log
3
D
, but ex-trapolation to smaller sizes is invalid. The size distri-bution below
1 km is essentially unexplored territory.One piece of evidence comes from the size distribution of ejecta blocks on 433 Eros. Based on the block distribu-tion over a size range 0.1 – 150 m,Cheng(2004) argued
3
The Minor Planet Center supports a database for all observedSSSBs:http://www.cfa.harvard.edu/iau/mpc.html
 
3
10
0
10
2
10
4
10
6
10
8
10
10
10
12
10
14
10
16
10
2
10
3
10
4
10
5
10
6
10
7
10
8
      N      (    >     r      )
Radius, cmKBOs(n-1)=32.52MBAs2.521.5
      C     e     r     e     sP      l    u      t     o
Fig. 1.—
Cumulative size distribution
(
> r
) of KBOs (upperset of lines) and MBAs (lower set of lines). Line coding: thick dash-dot line –Binzel et al.(1999), thick dashes –Tedesco & Desert (2002), thick solid –Tedesco et al.(2005), thick dots – parame- terization proposed byCheng(2004). Our parameterizations are shown by thin lines (solid, dotted) where the numbers show the
cumulative
power-law index (
n
1) of a particular distribution.Thin solid lines are our adapted distributions: index 2.0 (
n
= 3
.
0)for MBAs, and 2.5 (
n
= 3
.
5) for KBOs. Thin dotted lines showthe range discussed in the paper. See text for details.
that these data support a cumulative index 2.5 extrapo-lation down to sizes
1 m. Our distribution with a singlecumulative index (
n
1) = 2 (thin solid line), detailedin the next Section, seems to match the global size dis-tribution determined from various types of observationsin the wide range of radii 10
2
10
7
cm. We will use thisdistribution in our estimates of the MBA albedo, below.The dynamical estimate of the total mass of the aster-oid belt is about (3
.
6
±
0
.
4)
×
10
24
g (Krasinsky et al.2002) or close to 5% of the mass of the Moon. The totalmass is dominated by largebodies, while the
γ 
-rayalbedois dominated by very small bodies. The largest MBA, 1Ceres, comprises about 30% of the total mass of the as-teroid belt alone. However, it does not provide a restric-tion on the size (and mass) distribution of small bodies.Current estimates indicate the total number of MBAsabove 1 km in diameter is (1
.
2
1
.
9)
×
10
6
n
= 3 gives a number near theupper end of this range, 1
.
92
×
10
6
, while also puttingthe total number of MBAs with
r >
1 m at
5
×
10
11
(Figure1). To get an idea of how the MBA albedo fluxdepends on the extrapolation to small radii
D
<
1 km,we also consider broken power-law distributions with in-dices 2.5 and 3.5 below 1 km in diameter, retaining anindex 3 for sizes larger than 1 km.The densities of most MBAs lie in the range 1.0 – 3.5 gcm
3
(Binzel et al. 1999) while the densities of particularasteroid classes can vary broadly, 1.23 – 1.40 g cm
3
forcarbonaceous, 2.65 – 2.75 g cm
3
for silicate, and 4.75 –5.82 g cm
3
for metallic bodies(Krasinsky et al. 2002).We adopt an average density
ρ
= 2 g cm
3
.Most MBAs have a semimajor axis between 2.1 and3.3 AU with a low eccenticity orbit. In our estimates weassume an average circular orbit with radius
2
.
7 AU.The Jovian Trojan populations of asteroids are collec-tions of bodies in the same orbit as Jupiter (semimajoraxis
5
.
2 AU) located at the
L
4
and
L
5
Lagrangepoints of the Jupiter-Sun system. The Trojans are thusconcentrated in two regions rather than distributed overthe entire ecliptic as for the MBAs. The total mass of theJovian Trojans is estimated to be
10
4
where
is the mass of the Earth with a differential power-law in-dex
n
3 in the size range 2 km to 20 km (Jewitt et al.2000;Yoshida & Nakamura 2005), similar to MBAs, giv- ing a number of objects
1 km in diameter
1
.
3
×
10
6
(Jewitt et al. 2000). The combined mass of these objectsis approximately the same as for the MBAs. The numberof objects
1 km in diameter and the power-law index
n
3 makes their size distribution very similar to thatof MBAs.The mass density of SSSBs in this group varies sig-nificantly: estimates for the binary Trojan 617 Patroclusare less than water ice
ρ
= 0
.
8
+0
.
2
0
.
1
g cm
3
(Marchis et al.2006), as are those for other Trojan binaries
ρ
0
.
6
0
.
8g cm
3
(Mann et al. 2007), while 624 Hektor is some-what denser
ρ
= 2
.
48
+0
.
292
0
.
080
g cm
3
(Lacerda & Jewitt2007). In our calculations we adopt an average density
ρ
= 1 g cm
3
as a compromise between these bounds.We also consider icy bodies and comets in the KuiperBelt (for a review seeLuu & Jewitt 2002) and the con- joining innermost part of the Oort Cloud
4
, but call themall KBOs for simplicity. The KBOs are not uniformlydistributed, with at least three dynamically distinct pop-ulations identified: the Classical Disk, the Scattered Diskwith large eccentricities and inclinations, and “Pluti-nos” around the 3:2 mean motion resonance with Nep-tune at 39.4 AU. Kuiper Belt Objects are distributedbetween 30 – 100 AU (Backman et al. 1995, and refer-ences therein) with surface number density
σ
(
) =
Aℓ
α
A
is aconstant determined in eq. (11), and
α
= 2. The totalmass is estimated to be in the range
0.01–0.3
, whilethe most often used value is
0.1
(Luu & Jewitt2002). The density of small icy bodies and comets is
0.5 g cm
3
(Asphaug & Benz 1994;Solem 1994). The KBO size distribution is much more difficult todetermine because of their dimness. It is widely believedthat the TNOs are dynamically related to the Centaurs
4
The Oort Cloud of comets (e.g.,Stern 2003) is thought to oc-cupy a vast space between 50 and 50000 AU from the Sun and alsocontributes to the celestial
γ 
-ray foreground. However, its exactmass and distribution are poorly constrained. We are planning toinvestigate limits on the albedo of the Oort Cloud in a forthcomingpaper.

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
scribd
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->