Welcome to Scribd, the world's digital library. Read, publish, and share books and documents. See more
Download
Standard view
Full view
of .
Look up keyword
Like this
1Activity
0 of .
Results for:
No results containing your search query
P. 1
High-resolution simulations of the final assembly of Earth-like planets 1

High-resolution simulations of the final assembly of Earth-like planets 1

Ratings: (0)|Views: 16 |Likes:
Published by ardeegee

More info:

Published by: ardeegee on Sep 05, 2008
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

05/09/2014

pdf

text

original

 
D
RAFT VERSION
F
EBRUARY
5, 2008Preprint typeset using L
A
TEX style emulateapj
HIGH-RESOLUTION SIMULATIONS OF THE FINAL ASSEMBLY OF EARTH-LIKE PLANETS 1: TERRESTRIALACCRETION AND DYNAMICS
S
EAN
N. R
AYMOND
1
,
2
, T
HOMAS
Q
UINN
1
, & J
ONATHAN
I. L
UNINE
3
 Draft version February 5, 2008
ABSTRACTThe final stage in the formation of terrestrial planets consists of the accumulation of 
1000-km “planetaryembryos” and a swarm of billions of 1-10 km “planetesimals.Duringthis process, water-rich material is accretedby the terrestrial planets via impacts of water-rich bodies from beyond roughly 2.5 AU. We present results fromfive high-resolutiondynamicalsimulations. These start from 1000-2000embryosand planetesimals, roughly5-10times more particles than in previous simulations.Eachsimulationformed2-4terrestrialplanets withmasses between0.4and2.6Earthmasses. Theeccentricitiesof most planets were
0.05, lower than in previous simulations, but still higher than for Venus, Earth and Mars.Each planet accreted at least the Earth’s current water budget.We demonstrate several new aspects of the accretion process: 1) The feeding zones of terrestrial planets changein time, wideningandmovingoutward. Evenin thepresenceof Jupiter,water-richmaterial frombeyond2.5AU isnot accreted for several millions of years. 2) Even in the absence of secular resonances, the asteroid belt is clearedof 
>
99% of its original mass by self-scattering of bodies into resonances with Jupiter. 3) If planetary embryosform relatively slowly, following the models of Kokubo & Ida, then the formation of embryos in the asteroid beltmay have been stunted by the presence of Jupiter. 4) Self-interacting planetesimals feel dynamical friction fromother small bodies, which has important effects on the eccentricity evolution and outcome of a simulation.
Subject headings:
planetary formation – extrasolar planets – cosmochemistry – exobiology
1.
INTRODUCTION
The final stages of the formation of terrestrial planets con-sist of the agglomeration of a swarm of trillions of km-sizedplanetesimals into a few massive planets (see Lissauer, 1993,for a review). Two distinct stages in this process are usuallyenvisioned: the formation of planetary embryos, and their sub-sequent accretion into full-sized terrestrial planets.Runaway growth leads to the formation of Moon-to Mars-sized planetary embryos in the inner Solar System, in a processknown as “oligarchic growth”. The total number of embryosis uncertain, and may range from
30-50 if these are rela-tively massive to perhaps 500-1000 if embryos average only alunar mass. The timescale for embryo formation is thought toincrease with orbital radius, and decrease with the local sur-face density (Kokubo & Ida 2000, 2002). Thus, embryos formquickly at small orbital radii, and slower farther from the cen-tral star. Kokubo & Ida (2000) found that the timescale for em-bryoformationat 2.5AU is roughly10million years. However,Goldreich
et al.
(2004) calculated a much shorter timescale forembryo formation in the inner disk,
10
5
years.A jump in the local density may drastically reduce thetimescale for embryo formation. Such a jump is expected im-mediatelybeyondthe “snow line”, wherethe temperaturedropsbelow the condensation point of water (e.g., Stevenson & Lu-nine 1988). Beyond this jump, the isolation masses of embryosincrease, yet their formation timescales decrease. These mas-sive icy embryos are thought to be the building blocks of giantplanet cores, following the “core-accretion” scenario for giantplanet formation (Pollack 
et al.
1996). Thus, embryo formationis differentinterior to and exteriorto the snow line – the longestembryoformationtimescales may lie in the
outer 
regionsof the
inner 
disk (Kokubo & Ida 2002).The stage of oligarchic growth is thought to end whenroughly half of the total disk mass is in the form of embryos,and half in the form of planetesimals (Lissauer 1993). The finalassembly of terrestrial planets consists of accretional growth of largebodies from this swarm, on timescales of about50 millionyears (e.g., Wetherill 1996).Several authors have simulated the late-stage accretion of terrestrial planets (e.g. Wetherill 1996; Agnor
et al.
1999;Morbidelli
et al.
2000; Chambers 2001; Raymond
et al.
2004,2005a, 2005b). Because of computational limitations, mostsimulations started from only
20-200 particles. These sim-ulations only included embryos in the terrestrial region, andcould not probe the full mass range of embryos. In addition,they inevitably neglected the planetesimal component.A significant physical process that requires a large numberof bodies to model is dynamical friction. This is a damp-ing force felt by a large body (e.g., a planetary embryo) in aswarm of smaller bodies (such as planetesimals). This effectcertainly plays an important role in the final assembly of ter-restrial planets (Goldreich
et al.
, 2004). Indeed, several setsof dynamical simulations have formed terrestrial planets withmuch higher orbital eccentricities and inclinations than thosein the Solar System (Agnor
et al.
1999; Chambers 2001; Ray-mond
et al.
2004hereafterRQL04). Dynamicalfrictioncouldpossibly reconcile this discrepancy.Here we present results of five high-resolution simulations,containingbetween1000 and 2000initial particles. For the firsttime, we can directly simulate a realistic number of embryosaccording to various models of their formation (see section 2).
1
Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195 (raymond@astro.washington.edu)
2
Current address: Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309
3
Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, The University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85287.
1
 
2Our simulations are designed to examine the accretion and wa-ter delivery processes in more detail, and also to explore thedynamical effects of a larger number of particles. We focus ourstudy on 1) the mass and 2) the orbital evolution of terrestrialplanets. In addition to the accretion of terrestrial planets, wewant to understand the source of their compositions, in partic-ular their water contents and potential habitability. We addressthese issues in a companion paper (Raymond
et al.
2006; here-after Paper 2).Section 2 discusses our initial conditions, i.e. our startingdistributions of planetary embryos and planetesimals. Section3 explains our numerical methods. Sections 4, 5, and 6 presentthe detailed evolution of each simulation. Section 7 concludesthe paper.
2.
INITIAL CONDITIONS
We choose three different sets of initial conditions for ourhigh resolutionsimulations, shown in Figure 1 and summarizedin Table 1. In all cases we follow an
3
/
2
surface density pro-file with total mass in solid bodies between 8.5 and 10 M
. Allprotoplanets are given small initial eccentricities (
0
.
02) andinclinations (
1
). (Note that we use the term “protoplanets”to encompass both planetary embryos and planetesimals. Thisdiffers from certain previous uses of the term.)The initial water content of protoplanets is designed to re-produce the water content of chondritic classes of meteorites(see Fig. 2 from RQL04): inside 2 AU bodies are initially dry;outside of 2.5 AU the have an initial water content of 5% bymass; and between 2 and 2.5 AU they contain 0.1% water bymass. The source of the water distribution in the Solar Systemis a combination of heating from the Sun (which determinesthe location of the snow line – e.g. Sasselov & Lecar 2002)and from radioactive nuclides, which may have been obtainedfrom a nearby supernova early in the Sun’s history (Hester
et al.
2004). These processes are complex and not fully under-stood; indeed, the location of the condensation point of watermay not even track the innermost water-rich material (Cyr
et al.
1998; Kornet
et al.
2004). It is therefore unclear whether theSolar System’s initial water distribution is typical of protoplan-etary disks in the Galaxy.Thestartingironcontentsofprotoplanetsareinterpolatedbe-tween thevaluesfortheplanets(neglectingMercury)andchon-dritic classes of meteorites, with values taken from Lodders &Fegley (1998), as in Raymond
et al.
(2005a, 2005b). To spanour range of initial conditions, we extrapolate to values of 0.5at 0.2 AU and 0.15 at 5 AU.We beginsimulation 0 in the late stages of oligarchicgrowth,when planetary embryos were not yet fully formed. The sepa-ration between embryos is randomly chosen to lie between 0.3and 0.6 mutual Hill radii. The total number of protoplanets inthe simulation is 1885, which is a factor of 5-10 more particlesthan previous simulations. The surface density at 1 AU is 10
gcm
2
, and the total mass in embryos is 9.9 M
, extending to5 AU. A Jupiter-mass giant planet on a circular orbit is presentat 5.5 AU.Insimulation1,wefollowtheresultsofKokubo&Ida(2000,2002),who suggest that the timescale for the formationof plan-etary embryos is a function of heliocentric distance. Interiorto the 3:1 resonance with Jupiter at 2.5 AU we include em-bryos. Exterior to the 3:1 resonance, we divide the total massinto 1000 “planetesimals” with masses of 0.006 M
. We at-tempt to probe the dynamical effects of a swarm of planetesi-mals, although these are still many orders of magnitude moremassive than realistic planetesimals. The total mass in plan-etesimals and planetary embryos is 9.4 M
, with roughly twothirds of the mass in planetesimals in the outer disk. The dif-ference in total solid mass between simulations 0, 1 and 2 isnot significant, and is simply the result of random spacing of bodies. Jupiter is included on a circular orbit at 5.2 AU – again,this is different than simulation 0, but not enough to cause anoticeable effect. We perform two simulations with the sameinitial conditions: a) In simulation 1a all bodies interact witheach other, b) in simulation 1b the “planetesimals” past 2.5 AUare not self-interacting. They gravitationally interact with theembryos and Jupiter, but not with each other. This allows forsignificant computational speedup.In Simulation 2, we assume that planetary embryos formedall the way out to 5 AU. However, a significant component of the total mass is still contained in a swarm of planetesimalswhich are littered throughout the region (between 0.5 and 5AU). We include a total of 5.6 M
in 54 embryos and 3 M
in1000 planetesimals, which are distributed with radial distance
as
1
/
2
(the annular mass in our
3
/
2
surface density profile).A Jupiter-mass giant planet is included at 5.2 AU on a circularorbit. As with simulation 1, we have run two cases – a) one inwhich planetesimals are treated in the same way as all massivebodies (simulation 2a) and b) one in which planetesimals donot interact with each other, but only with embryos and giantplanets (simulation 2b).Our three sets of initial conditions correspond to either dif-ferent timescales for the formation of Jupiter, or differenttimescales for embryo formation. Jupiter is constrained to haveformed in the few Myr lifetime of the gaseous component of the Solar Nebula (Briceño et al 2001). According to Kokubo &Ida (2000, 2002), the timescale for planetary embryos to formout to 2.5 AU is
10 Myr, and even longerin the outerasteroidregion (Goldreich
et al.
2004 find a timescale of 
10
5
years).Simulation 0 contains no embryo-sized bodies, and thereforerepresents a very fast timescale for Jupiter’s formation. Sim-ulations 1a and 1b assume embryos to have formed out to 2.5AU, and therefore represent a late formation for Jupiter (in theKokubo & Ida model). Simulations 2a and 2b contain embryosout to 5 AU, and thereforerepresenteither a verylate formationtime for Jupiter, or a much faster formation time for embryos.Previous simulations have generally assumed embryos to existthroughout the terrestrial zone, which is consistent with mod-els predicting fast growth of embryos (Goldreich
et al.
2004)but not with models predicting slower growth (Kokubo & Ida2000, 2002).The most important distinction between these and previousinitial conditions is simply the scale: in the simulations fromRQL04, planetary embryo masses ranged from about 0.03 to0.2 M
. In these simulations, we include bodies as small as10
3
M
(and some even less massive ones in the inner edgeof simulation 0). The protoplanetary disks we are modelingare similar to previous simulations, but the number of particlesis larger by roughly a factor of ten. As shown below, our in-creased resolution shows several new and interesting aspects of terrestrial accretion and water delivery.
3.
NUMERICAL METHOD
In our simulations, we include roughly 5-10 times moreparticles than in previous simulations. The difficulty in in-cluding so many particles is that the number of operations
 
3T
ABLE
1I
NITIAL
C
ONDITIONS FOR
5 H
IGH
R
ESOLUTION
S
IMULATIONS
Simulation N(massive)
1
N(non-int)
2
 M 
TOT 
(M
)
3
a
 Jup
(
 AU 
)
4
0 1885 9.9 5.51a 1038 9.3 5.21b 38 1000 9.3 5.22a 1054 8.6 5.22b 54 1000 8.6 5.2
1
Number of massive, self-interacting particles.
2
Number of non self-interacting particles.
3
Total solid mass in planetary embryos and planetesimals.
4
Orbital radius of Jupiter-mass giant planet.
scales strongly with the number of particles
. The compu-tational time required for serial algorithms such as
Mercury
(Chambers 1999) scales as
2
, whereas parallel codes such as
pkdgrav
(Stadel 2001) can improve the scaling to
Nlog
(
 N 
).One can overcomethis issue in two ways: 1) simply allow sim-ulations to run for a longer time with a serial code such as
Mercury
, or 2) use parallel machines to run alternative al-gorithms such as
pkdgrav
to speed up the calculations. Herewe have followed (1), and simply run simulations for a longertime than before (we have also optimized
pkdgrav
for suchcalculations, which are in progress).All simulations were evolved for at least 200 Myr, and wereperformed on 2.7 GHz desktop PCs using
Mercury
(Cham-bers 1999). Simulation 0 required 16 consecutive months of integration time. Simulation 1a and 2a took 4-5 months each.Simulations 1b and 2b took only 2-3 months of CPU time be-cause most particles were not self-interacting, thereby greatlyspeedingup
Mercury
’s
2
forcealgorithm. We use a timestepof 6 days, to sample the innermost body in our simulationtwenty times per orbit. Collisions are treated as inelastic merg-ers. Energyis conservedto better than 1 part in 10
3
in all cases.
4.
SIMULATION 0: 1885 INITIAL PARTICLES
Figure2showssixsnapshotsintimeintheevolutionofsimu-lation 0. Embryos quickly become excited by their own mutualgravitation as well as that of the Jupiter-mass planet at 5.5 AU(not shown in plot). Objects in several distinct mean motionresonances have been excited by the 0.1 Myr snapshot and canbe seen in Fig. 2: the 3:1 resonance at 2.64 AU, 2:1 resonanceat 3.46 AU, and the 5:3 resonance at 3.91 AU. All material ex-terior to the 3:2 resonance at 4.2 AU is quickly removed fromthe system via collisions with and ejections by the giant planet,which we refer to as Jupiter, for simplicity. Once eccentricitiesare large enough for particles’ orbits to cross, bodies begin togrow via accretionary collisions. This has started to happen inthe inner disk by 1 Myr. These large bodies tend to have smalleccentricities and inclinations, due to the dissipative effects of dynamical friction (equipartition of energy causes the smallerbodies to be more dynamically heated).Accretion proceeds fastest in the the inner disk and movesoutward, as can be seen by the presence of several large bod-ies inside 2 AU after 10 Myr. In the outer disk, collisions aremuch less frequent because of the slower dynamical timescalesand decreasing density of material due to Jupiter clearing theregion via ejections. However, the mean eccentricity of bod-ies in the outer disk is quite high, enabling those which are notejected by Jupiter to have their orbits move inward in time. Af-ter 30 Myr, the inner disk is composed primarily of a few largebodies, which have begun to accrete water-rich material fromthe outer disk. Larger bodies have started to form out to 2.5-3AU, but their eccentricities are large. In time, several of theseouterlargebodiesare incorporatedintothe threefinal terrestrialplanets. We name the surviving planets
a
,
b
, and
c
(innermostto outermost). The properties of all the planets formed in ourfive high-resolution simulations are listed in Table 2. Plots likeFig. 2 of the evolution of each simulation are shown later in thepaper.4.1.
Mass Evolution of simulation 0 planets
In RQL04, the number of constituent particles that ended upin a given Earth-mass planet was typically 30-50. The threeplanets in simulation 0 formed from a much larger number of bodies: planet
a
(0.55 AU) from 500 protoplanets via 87 accre-tionarycollisions, planet
b
(0.98AU) from457protoplanetsvia98 collisions, and planet
c
(1.93 AU) from 174 protoplanets via47 collisions.Figure3showsthe“feedingzoneofeachplanet,thestartinglocation of all bodies which were incorporated into that planet.Planet
a
contains 8% (5%) of material from past 2 AU (2.5AU), planet
b
contains 25% (17%) from past 2 AU (2.5 AU),and planet
c
contains 37% (18%) from past 2 AU (2.5 AU).The feeding zone of planet
a
is much narrower than those of planets
b
and
c
, and is concentratedin the inner terrestrial zone.However, the feeding zones of the planets change in time.Figure 4 shows the mass of each of the three final planets asa function of time. Planets
a
and
b
start to grow quickly, butplanet
c
starts later because of the longer dynamical timescalesin the outer terrestrial zone. We expect planet
a
to start grow-ing faster than planet
b
for the same reason, but this is not thecase. This is because the accretion seed of planet
b
originatedvery close to the seed of planet
a
, and was in the same regionof rapid accretion at early times. Each planet grows quickly in thefirst few million years by accreting local material, but this rateflattens off within 20-30 million years. This happens fastestfor planet
a
because the accretion in the inner disk is short-est, and most available material has been consumed within thattime. The later stages of growth are characterized by a step-wise pattern representing a smaller number of larger-scale col-lisions with other “oligarchs”, which have also cleared out allbodies in their feeding zones. Such large, late impacts are rem-iniscent of the Moon-forming impact (e.g., Canup & Asphaug,2001), which is thought to have occurred at low relative veloc-

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->