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London

London

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Published by Fouad Pecco

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Published by: Fouad Pecco on May 11, 2011
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London
Definitions
London can be defined in a number of different ways. The Londonregionof England, also commonly known asGreater London, is the area administered by theGreater London Authority. The urban sprawl of the conurbation — or Greater  London Urban Area— covers a roughly similar area, with a slightly larger  population. Beyond this is the vastLondon commuter belt.At London's core is thesmall, ancientCity of Londonwhich is commonly known as "The City" or "Square Mile". Within London, both the City of London and theCity of Westminster haveCity statusand both the City of London and the remainder of  Greater London areceremonial counties. The current area of Greater Londonwas historicallypart of the counties of Middlesex,Kent,Surrey,Essexand Hertfordshire.Forty percent of Greater London is covered by theLondon postal area.TheLondon telephone area codecovers a larger area, similar in size to Greater London, although some outer districts are omitted and some places just outside areincluded. The area within the orbitalM25 motorwayis sometimes used to definethe "London area and the Greater London boundary has beenaligned to itin places. Greater London is split for some purposes intoInner LondonandOuter  London. It can also be informally split into North,South,East,Westand often also Central London.London's metropolitan area ('the metropolis') grew considerably during theVictorian eraand again during theInterwar period. Expansion halted in the 1940s  because of World War IIandGreen Beltlegislation, and the area has been largely static since. TheMetropolitan Police District, city-wide local government areaand London transport areahave varied over time, but currently broadly coincide withthe Greater London boundary.Unlike most capital cities, London's status as the capital of the UK hasnever been granted or confirmed officially — bystatuteor in written form.[citation needed] Its position as the capital has formed throughconstitutional convention, making its position asde factocapital a part of theUK's unwritten constitution. The capital of England was moved to London fromWinchester as the Palace of Westminster developed in the 12th and 13th centuries to become the permanent location of theroyal court, and thus the political capital of the nation. TheRomansmay have marked the centre of Londiniumwith theLondon Stone, still visible onCannon Street. The coordinates of the nominal centre of  London (traditionally considered to be the originalEleanor CrossatCharing
Prepared by,Mohamed Fou’adAn English instructor The British academy
 
Cross, near the junction of Trafalgar SquareandWhitehall) are approximately 51°30′29″N, 00°07′29″W. Trafalgar Square has also become a central point for celebrations and protests.
Geography and climate
Topography and climate
Climate chartfor London
 
JFMAMJJASOND5282348242114451354717853201138231447231357191162158521155493temperatures in °C / precipitation in mmGreater London covers an area of 609 square miles (1,579km²), making it one of theworld's largest citiesby area.[citation needed] Its primary geographical feature is theThames,anavigable river which crosses the city from the southwest to the east. TheThames Valleyis afloodplainsurrounded by gently rolling hills such as Parliament Hill,Addington Hills, andPrimrose Hill. These hills presented no significant obstacle to the growth of London from its origins as a port on the northside of the river, and therefore London is roughly circular.The Thames was once a much broader, shallower river with extensivemarshlands; at high tide, its shores reached five times their current width. It has been extensivelyembanked, and many of its Londontributariesnow flow underground. The Thames is a tidal river, and London is vulnerable to flooding.The threat has increased over time due to a slow but continuous rise inhigh water  level by the slow 'tilting' of Britain (up in the north and down in the south) caused by post-glacial rebound.[28]In 1974, a decade of work began on the construction of theThames Barrier across the Thames atWoolwichto deal with this threat. While the barrier is expected to function as designed until roughly 2030, conceptsfor its future enlargement or redesign are already being discussed.London has atemperateclimate with regular but generally light precipitation  throughout the year - unlike the rest of the UK and even the nearby coast. Londonis in fact among the driest of Europe's capitals, with water resources per head of  population equivalent toIsrael.[30]The warmest month is July, with an average temperature rangeatGreenwichof 13.6°Cto 22.8 °C (56.5 to 73.0°F). Record high temperatures of up to 38.1 °C (101 °F) were recorded in different parts of London on10 August 2003.[31]The coolest month is January, averaging 2.4 °C to 7.9 °C (35.6 to 46.2 °F). Average annual precipitationis 583.6mm(22.98 in), with February on average the driest month.[32]Snow is relatively uncommon,
Prepared by,Mohamed Fou’adAn English instructor The British academy
 
 particularly becauseheat from the urban areacan make London up to 5 °C (9 °F)hotter than the surrounding areas in winter. However light snowfall is seen onsome days most winters. London is inUSDA Hardiness zone9, and AHS Heat Zone 2.[citation needed][hide]Weather averages for LondonMonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYeaAveragehigh °C (°F)7.9(46)8.2(47)10.9(52)13.3(56)17.2(63)20.2(68)22.8(73)22.6(73)19.3(67)15.2(59)10.9(52)8.8(48)14.8(59)Average low°C (°F)2.4(36)2.2(36)3.8(39)5.2(41)8.0(46)11.1(52)13.6(56)13.3(56)10.9(52)8.0(46)4.8(41)3.3(38)7.2(45)Precipitationmm (inch)51.9(2)34.0(1.3)42.0(1.7)45.2(1.8)47.2(1.9)53.0(2.1)38.3(1.5)47.3(1.9)56.9(2.2)61.5(2.4)52.3(2.1)54.0(2.1)583.6(23)
Districts
See also:Central London,Inner London, andOuter London Canary Wharf , in London's second financial district,London DocklandsLondon's vast urban area is often described using a set of district names (e.g.Bloomsbury,Knightsbridge,Mayfair , Whitechapel). These are either informal designations, or reflect the names of superseded parishes and city wards.Such names have remained in use through tradition, eachreferring to a neighbourhood with its own distinctive character, but often with nomodern official boundaries (the boundaries often overlap, allowing estate agentssome leeway in defining the location of a property).[citation needed]One area of London which does have a strict definition is theCity of London (usually just called The City), the largest financial district andcentral businessdistrict(CBD) in Europe.[citation needed] The City has its own governance and  boundaries, giving it a status as the only completely autonomous local authority inLondon. London's new financial and commercial hub is theDocklandsarea to theeast of the City, dominated by theCanary Wharf complex. Other businesses locatein theCity of Westminster , the home of theUK's national governmentand the famousWestminster Abbey.TheWest Endis London's main entertainment and shopping district, withlocations such asOxford Street,Leicester Square,Covent GardenandPiccadilly Circusacting as tourist magnets.[citation needed] TheWest Londonarea is known for fashionable and expensive residential areas such as Notting Hill,Knightsbridge  andChelsea— where properties can sell for tens of millions of pounds. Theaverage price for all properties in the Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea is
Prepared by,Mohamed Fou’adAn English instructor The British academy

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