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Raj Bhala Doha Round Betrayals 2010

Raj Bhala Doha Round Betrayals 2010

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Published by Simon Lacey

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Published by: Simon Lacey on May 11, 2011
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DOHA ROUND BETRAYALS
 Raj Bhala
 
I. T
HE
S
HIFT
B
ACK TO THE
O
LD
P
ARADIGM
.......................................... 149
 A. The Two Betrayals ......................................................................
149
 B. Two Reasons for the Betrayals ...................................................
150
C. Organization ...............................................................................
153II. F
IGHTING THE
G
REAT
G
LOBAL
R
ECESSION
........................................ 154
 A. No Perfect Outcome ...................................................................
154
 B. The Argument .............................................................................
156III. F
IVE
R
EBUTTALS
................................................................................ 159
 A. It Won’t Happen .........................................................................
159
 B. Rhetoric Outstrips Courage .......................................................
160
C. The G-20 Versus the WTO ..........................................................
166
Rice Distinguished Professor, The University of Kansas, School of Law, Green Hall, 1535 West 15thStreet, Lawrence, KS 66045-7577 U.S.A., tel. 785-864-9224, fax. 785-864-5054, www.law.ku.edu; ForeignLegal Consultant, Heenan Blaikie, LLP, Canada.J.D., Harvard (1989); M.Sc., Oxford (1986); M.Sc., London School of Economics (1985); A.B., Duke(1984). Marshall Scholar (1984–1986). Member, Council on Foreign Relations, Royal Society for AsianAffairs, and Fellowship of Catholic Scholars. Author of the monograph,
Trade, Development, and Social Justice
(Carolina Academic Press 2003); treatise,
 Modern GATT Law
(Sweet & Maxwell 2005); textbook,
 International Trade Law: Interdisciplinary Theory and Practice
(3d ed. 2008); and reference,
 Dictionary of  International Trade Law
(2008). Author of 
Understanding Islamic Law (Shar 
ī 
’a)
(LexisNexis, forthcoming2011).The author is indebted to Mr. David Day, Executive Symposium Editor,
 Emory International Law Review
(“
 EILR
”), for his invitation to participate in this Symposium and to him and his colleagues on the
 EILR
 for their excellent support and assistance.This Article assumes familiarity with my four prior publications on the Doha Round, or at least with therelevant substantive concepts and events that occurred between the launch of the Round in November 2001and negotiations as of July 2009:(1)
Poverty, Islam, and Doha
, 36
 
I
NT
L
L
AW
. 159–96 (2002), which covers the launch of the DohaRound in November 2001;(2) Chapters 3 and 4 of the
 International Trade Law
textbook, referenced above, particularly conceptsand terms in Doha Round negotiations, and the status of those talks through the July 2007 DraftModalities Texts issued by Ambassadors Crawford Falconer (New Zealand) and DonaldStephenson (Canada), Chairmen of the Agriculture and Non-Agricultural Market Accessnegotiations, respectively;(3)
Doha Round Schisms: Numerous, Technical, and Deep
, 6 L
OY
.
 
U.
 
C
HI
.
 
I
NT
L
L.
 
R
EV
. 5–171 (2008),which covers the Doha Round through the collapse of the July 2008 Ministerial meeting;(4)
Resurrecting the Doha Round: Devilish Details, Grand Themes, and China Too
, 45 T
EX
.
 
I
NT
L
L.J.
 
1–125 (2009), which analyzes the Doha Round from the July 2008 collapse through July 2009.This Article is drawn in part from the
Texas International Law Journal
piece. All errors are the responsibilityof the author.
 
148 EMORY INTERNATIONAL LAW REVIEW [Vol. 24
 D. Bank Capital Adequacy and Trade Finance Matter ...................
166
 E. Back to the Original Purposes ...................................................
169
 
IV. W
HAT
H
APPENED TO
F
IGHTING
P
OVERTY
?
 
........................................ 170
 A. Not About the Middle “D” .........................................................
170
 B. From Generosity Back to Reciprocity ........................................
172V. W
HAT
H
APPENED TO
W
INNING
M
USLIM
H
EARTS AND
M
INDS
?
 
........ 179
 A. Neglect and Need ........................................................................
179
 B. The Frightening Link ..................................................................
182
 
2010] DOHA ROUND BETRAYALS 149
I. T
HE
S
HIFT
B
ACK TO THE
O
LD
P
ARADIGM
 
 A. The Two Betrayals
The Doha Round was supposed to be about the grandest themes of contemporary times, namely, wealth and poverty and Islam and globalization,both of which are inextricably linked to war and peace.
1
Thus, in a commercialsense, it is said the Round is “intended to improve global market access bycutting massive farm subsidies in rich countries and import tariffs in poorerones . . . .”
2
That characterization is true as far as it goes, but it does not go farenough. The Round—intentionally launched in the heart of the Arab MuslimWorld—was thought to be an important way to fight oppression and, thereby,wean people in poor countries, especially ones with significant Islamicpopulations, away from anti-capitalist thinking and, worse yet, violent action.
Yet, the Doha Round has betrayed the two essential purposes for which it was launched in the Qatari capital in November 2001: fighting poverty and thereby fighting Islamic extremism
. Paragraph 2 of the Ministerial Declarationthat launched the Doha Development Agenda (“DDA”) lays them out:
2. International trade can play a major role in
the promotion of economic development and the alleviation of poverty
. We recognizethe need for
all our peoples
to benefit from the increasedopportunities and welfare gains that the multilateral trading systemgenerates. The majority of WTO Members are developing countries.We seek to place their needs and interests at the heart of the Work Programme adopted in this Declaration . . . .
3
 
Paragraph 2 explicitly refers to fighting poverty. The Paragraph implicitlyconnotes fighting Islamic extremism.That is, the italicized language plainly refers to “the promotion of economicdevelopment and the alleviation of poverty.”
4
Naturally, neither Muslims norIslamic countries are singled out by name. Paragraph 2 refers to “all our
1
Raj Bhala,
 Resurrecting the Doha Round: Devilish Details, Grand Themes, and China Too
, 45 T
EX
.
 
I
NT
L
L.J. 1, 5 (2009).
2
Tripti Lahiri,
 New Delhi “Breakthrough” Sets Restart of Doha Round Ag, NAMA Talks for Sept. 14
,26 Int’l Trade Rep.
 
(BNA) 1191 (2009).
3
World Trade Organization, Ministerial Declaration of 14 November 2001, WT/MIN(01)/DEC/1, 41I.L.M. 746 (2002),
available at 
http://www.wto.org/english/thewto_e/minist_e/min01_e/mindecl_e.htm[hereinafter DDA] (emphasis added).
4
Id.
 

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