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Published by jason_patidar

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Published by: jason_patidar on May 11, 2011
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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1.1 Background and Requirements
There are three different generations as far as mobile communication is concerned. The firstgeneration,
, is the name for the analogue or semi analogue (analogue radio path, but digitalswitching) mobile networks established after the mid-1980s, such as
(Nordic MobileTelephone) and
(American Mobile Phone System). These networks offered basicservices for the users, and the emphasis was on speech and services related matters. 1G network were mainly national efforts and very often they were specified after the networks wereestablished. Due to this, the 1G networks were incompatible with each other. Mobilecommunication was considered some kind of curiosity, and it added value service on top of thefixed networks in those times.As the need for mobile communication increased, also the need for a more global mobilecommunication system increased. The international specification bodies started to specify whatthe second generation,
; mobile communication system should look like. The emphasis on 2Gis/was on compatibility and international transparency; the system should be a global one and theusers of the system should be able to access it basically anywhere the service exists. Due to somepolitical reasons, the concept of globalization did not succeed completely and there were some2G systems available on the market. Out of these, the commercial success story is/was
(Global System for Mobile communications) and its adaptations: GSM has clearly exceeded allthe expectations set, both technically and commercially.The third generation,
, is expected to complete the globalization process of the mobilecommunication. Again there are national interests involved. Also some difficulties can beforeseen. Several 3G solutions were standardized, such as UMTS (Universal MobileTelecommunications System), cdma2000, and UWC-136 (Universal Wireless Communication).The 3G system
is mostly be based on GSM technical solutions due to two reasons.Firstly, the GSM as technology dominates the market, and secondly, investments made to GSM
 2should be utilized as much as possible. Based on this, the specification bodies created a visionabout how mobile telecommunication will develop within the next decade.Through this vision, some requirements for UMTS were short-listed as follows:
The system to be developed must be fully specified (like GSM). The specifications generatedshould be valid world-wide.
The system must bring clear added value when comparing to the GSM in all aspects.However, in the beginning phase(s) the system must be backward compatible at least withGSM and
Multimedia and all of its components must be supported throughout the system.
The radio access of the 3G must be generic.
The services for the end users must be independent: Radio access and the network infrastructure must not limit the services to be generated. That is, the technology platform isone issue and the services using the platform totally another issue.
1.2 Evolution of UMTS
3G has a completely new way to approach the term service: all the services offered should beindependent from the technology platform. This really opens the windows for free, 3rd partyservice development. There will be several services, and the majority of those will be based onthe Internet in one form or another. In addition, imaging (picture transfer) and video phoning willbe interesting services.If there is a possibility (as well as requirements and license), the operator may move to acompletely new level in service offering. This phase introduces new wideband radio accesstechnology, which, in the beginning, roughly equals the bit rates the EDGE concept is able toprovide. The new radio access requires new network elements in the radio network:
(RadioNetwork Controller) and
(Base Station) The BS is referred to as Node B in the 3GPPspecifications.
 3The new radio access introduced in this phase is, however, utilizing the frequency spectrummore efficiently; the data flow and its bit rate is not dependent on time slots any more. When theradio access method was planned, the packet type of traffic was especially considered.
1.3 Advantages of UMTS
UMTS has several advantages, for example:
Efficient use of the radio frequency spectrum
Different technologies, which improve the spectrum usage, are easy to apply to CDMA. E.g. inGSM, one physical channel is dedicated to one user for speech transmission. If discontinuoustransmission is applied, several timeslots of the physical channels are no used. These timeslotscannot be used otherwise. In UMTS, the transmission of several mobile phones takes place onthe same frequency band at the same time. Therefore, each transmission imposes interference tothe transmissions of other mobile phones on the same carrier frequency band. UMTS supportsdiscontinuous transmission via the radio interface. Consequently, if mobile phones are silent,when there is nothing to transmit, the interference level is reduced and therefore the radiointerface capacity increased. Another option allowed in UMTS is the multiplexing of packetswitched traffic with circuit switched traffic. If there is no speech to transmit for a subscriber, thesilent times are used for packet switched traffic.
Limited frequency management
CDMA uses the same frequency in adjacent cells. There is no need for the FDMA/TDMA typeof frequency assignment that can sometimes be difficult. This is the main reason for increasedradio interface efficiency of WCDMA.
Low mobile station transmit power
With advanced receiver technologies, CDMA can improve the reception performance. Therequired transmit power of a CDMA mobile phone can be reduced as compared to TDMAsystems. In the FDD mode, where bursty transmission is avoided, the peak power can be keptlow. Continuous transmission also avoids the electromagnetic emission problems caused bypulsed transmission to, for example, hearing aids and hospital equipment.

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