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An introduction to Biometrics

An introduction to Biometrics

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Published by ijcsis
Biometric recognition has been studied over10 years, the biometric use was only limited for the police application’s before .During this period, many different problems to the recognition were addressed; when looking to its potential advantages, this technology is now considered for a very great number of other applications. This paper gives an overview of different research on biometrics.
Biometric recognition has been studied over10 years, the biometric use was only limited for the police application’s before .During this period, many different problems to the recognition were addressed; when looking to its potential advantages, this technology is now considered for a very great number of other applications. This paper gives an overview of different research on biometrics.

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Published by: ijcsis on May 11, 2011
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(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 9, No. 4, 2011
An introduction to Biometrics
Sarah BENZIANE,Institut of maintenance and industrial security,University of Oran, AlgeriaBenziane.sarah@univ-oran.dz Abdelkader BENYETTOUDepartment of Computer Science, Faculty of Science,University of Science & Technology MohamedBoudiaf of Oran, Algeria
 Abstract
— Biometric recognition has been studied over10 years,the biometric use was only limited for the police application’sbefore .During this period, many different problems to therecognition were addressed; when looking to its potentialadvantages, this technology is now considered for a very greatnumber of other applications. This paper gives an overview of different research on biometrics
 Keywords-component; biometrics; modalities; biometric system; databases
I.
 
I
 NTRODUCTION
(H 
 EADING
1)
 The biometrics word has a large meaning in the study of identification’s persons from a number of characteristics. Acomplex human inheritance, very rich in combinations, and perfectly adapted to such systems of user identification, and/or authentification [1] [2]. It’s a Mathematical analysis of  biological characteristics of a person to determine his identitydecisively. Biometrics based on the principle of somecharacteristics recognition’s. Fingerprints, face, iris, retina,hand, keystroke [3] [4] and voice, provide irrefutable proof of the identity of a person they are unique biologicalcharacteristics distinguishing one person from another.Both identification and authentification differentiate thedefinition of the biometrics:Identification: The confirmation of the identity of theindividual which is identity papers or automatic teller machines.Authentication: Identification of an individual from aquantity of biometric recorded people. This type of biometricrecognition is especially used in the high fields with lownumber of users or ends of police investigationII.
 
H
ISTORY
 From some studies, we learn that prehistoric man used hisfingerprint to sign in commercial exchanges in Babylone. Sowhy not us? In 1892, Argentine police identified for the firsttime, a criminal by his fingerprints. Moreover, we can say thatthe dady of the biometry is Bertillon with its sheets of anthropometric, the inventor of the scientific police. Historymay say that biometry is very old technique. Although, thefirst automatic fingerprint prototype came in the mid-1970s,and the first commercial products was marketed in the early1980s. These systems will be used as a first step for biometricaccess control and / or time management for clients such as"governmental organization" (eg prisons).III.
 
W
HY
B
IOMETRICS
?It is pointed out that one of the problems to which we areconfronted is the fact that the security of our systems isn’tvery competent [5]. However, for some applications we needto use password to ease to this security. According to [6] the biometry aim’s are based principally on two concepts: theconvenience and the security.Convenience associated to Passwords like code PINE, password PC, credit cards, identity cards, or then keys can beforgotten, lost, stolen and copied. In addition, today everyoneshould remember multiple passwords and have in their  possession a large number of cards. A recent study showedthat on standard, an individual uses about 13 passwords in hiseveryday life. These passwords are sometimes difficult tomemorize and are rather often communicated to thirds. The biometry is able to mitigate this problem, and too facilitate theusage as that there will be no password to remember.In Security [7], the biometry would give us accurateidentification without identification papers that may becounterfeit. Also, it would improve the security of protecteddocuments in order to limit fraud. Adapted to the Internet [8], biometrics makes it possible to filter access to sites andintranets. Biometrics can be an ally of privacy to safeguard our identity and integrity of data. But taking into account certainaspects of the protection of this data as shown in [9].IV.
 
B
IOMETRIC SYSTEM
 Biometric system’s design ensures high reliability andspeed of biometrical identification even when using largedatabases. Based on the principle that such intelligent machine“would tend to build up models from its own databasis withinitself and then attempts to identify/authentify each pattern presented”; Capture Identification/Authentification Access[10].Most of the systems have a common operating technique,which is:1. CaptureFrom a sensor system, we capture an image or other signals;which will be analyzed by software processing to identify allthe according biometrics characteristics (BC) and miniaturize
40http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 9, No. 4, 2011
them (MBC). Which will represent the biometric key of the person, you’ll find more explanation in [11] about how togenerate this keys.2. CodificationFrom this MBC an algorithm codification will be used toincrease the degree of security. Nowadays, when speakingabout biometry; systematically is joined the word cryptology[12]. The main problem remaining is how to get an efficientsystem not only in time and rate of identification but too insecurity of the databases enrollment.3. EnrollmentBefore use, it is necessary to enroll users in advance; toregister their biometrics to be used as a template for future use[13]. However, when some privacy aren’t respected, somerisks appear like the sensitive information about people, theinitial templates before codification, identifiers can be forged.This problem received recently a lot of attention. [14] explainsthe possibility of template protecting biometric authenticationsystems applied to the fingerprint data.4. ComparisonThis will compare two MBC. It is performed by the biometric algorithm. The algorithm will interpret the 2 MBCto compare and determine if this is the same person. Unliketraditional passwords, it is not a comparison of 2 zones. Thisdecision is taken automatically by a complex algorithm after decryption and interpretation of the 2 MBC.5. AuthentificationBy the mean verification of the identity, more called “oneagainst one” based on protection templates [14]. Whenverification of an identity, we begin by stating his identity(original name, id ...), then presents the appropriate biometricsto the system, built the software then waiting MBC. It onlyremains to verify that the stored MBC and MBC pending arethe same: if so, the person is that it claims to be!But storing the MBC is a problem, because this informationcan be pirated and stolen. So, if the biometric data were notstored, they would be more difficult to steal. It would be alsomore difficult to compromise a great number of itsimultaneously [15]. To mitigate this problem, [16] proposesa biometric diagram of authentification not requiring thecomparison with a reference since it doesn’t require storage.Many works has been dedicated to this context; [17] [18] .6. IdentificationCalled too, comparison “one against n”, this operation is tofind someone in a group by means of its biometric key. Thistime no reference is given, pending the MBC is then comparedto all MBC previously recorded in the database.V.
 
H
OW TO KNOW IF BIOMETRIC SYSTEM IS ACCURATE
?We measure the performance of a biometric system bytwo error rate: the FRR (false reject rate) and FAR (falseacceptance rate). The FRR relates to the probability that a biometric system fails in the authentication of a registered person and the FAR refers to the probability of an incorrectverification.A third parameter (FER) measures the failure rate for enrollment. It reflects the probability of absence of a biometricfeature for an individual in a population.VI.
 
B
IOMETRIC MODALITY
 The biometric applications are now all around us in thetravel, transportation, border control, homeland security,healthcare, banking and finance, access control, airportsecurity, law enforcement, automotive, cyber security,encryption, nuclear power plants [19] and watermarking.Essentially, we can differentiate three modalities concept:I. PROCESSING BASED ON MORPHOLOGICALANALYSIS:• FINGERPRINTIs the largest biometric application technology used inautomated fingerprint identification systems. The fingerprintare the unique individual characteristics, that is more than 100years under the fingerprinting is known because the probability is less than 1 to one billion indicated that twomodels have identical fingerprints. Many programs was madeto reach a such application within them: FpVTE, ProprietyFingerprint Template (PFT), Slap fingerprint segmentationevaluation ,Fast fingerprint slap capture ,Fast rolled equivalentfingerprint capture ,Latent fingerprint testing (NIST),Fingerprint minutiae interoperability testing.To identify directly a fingerprint within many knownfingerprints patterns [20] is not an easy task owing roughfingers, damaged fingerprint areas or the different orientationor deformation of the fingerprint during the scan. [21]Highlight the time identification mainly. Technically twosolutions are applied in image processing for the detection:Minutiae’s points localization [22]Texture analysis [23]And sometimes matching the two features [24][9][25]It’s possible to find some platforms related on the market:VeriFinger Software Development Kit, FingerCell EmbeddedDevelopment Kit, MegaMatcher software Development Kit.It has as advantages Low cost and minimal obstruction butrequires a clean environment. Some of its main suppliers areIdentix, Dermalog, Cross Match, Polaroid, Veridicom, DigitalPersona, Sagem Morpho, Sonda, Cogent Systems, ActivCard(Ankari).• FACEOne of the most interesting and promising methodscontactless biometric identification is the automatic detectionof faces. Recently technical realization of these detection
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(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 9, No. 4, 2011
systems are based, on the computing of neuronal calculation procedure [26] [27]. [28] proposed a fusion method based onSupport Vector Classifier with combination of two differentface experts. The facial recognition is being very used for the physical access control and computer user accounts security.Historically, one of the first works made on are those of Chernoff about the seventies [29]. Starting from works of Professor Teuvo Kohonen [30], researcher in neural networksof the University of Helsinki, and work of Kirby and Sirovich[31] of the Brown University of Rhode Island, was developed by MIT the first face recognition system named eigenface.Generally, the detection [32] [33] is made by the extractionof some measurable features from the face images, as shapeand texture[34].[35] shows that’ possible ti use the siftoperator for face verification, the most are used for thefingerprint feature extraction and matching .The main problemmet is the illumination scene [36][37]; [38] proposes to use the photometric normalization as a pre-processing face algorithm.Many works have been developed in this way [39], althoughthe detection’s technique used depends essentially of thesupport technology, the main exploited is the smartcard [40].[41] presents an experimental approach; based on thesimilarity measure between pairs of images which arecomputed based on the mean Manhattan difference betweencorresponding histograms .[42] uses GMM (Gaussian MixtureModel) classifier in the face authentification for instance.Somehow, [43] explains virtual samples in machine learning,and by the way how a model can be built from chimericdatabase .Whithin the baseline experiments, we can quotestwo of them: the based on DCTmod2 feature extraction [44],and those based on normalized face images and RGBhistograms [45].It tends actually to be used with other  biometric technologies for security-critical applications.Emotion recognition [46] is an example of a lot of researchworks that can be used in communication with the computer and other hardwares.Many International programs were made to reach suchapplication within them: Face recognition vendor Tests, Facerecognition grand challenge. It’s possible to find some platforms related on the market; VeriLook SDK, FaceCellEDK, MegaMatcher SDK.Its main advantage is the Simplicity and the efficiency on aflow of people, although it requires a rigorous implementation.This technique can perfectly be associated to monitoring videosystem.• EYEBoth the fingerprint pattern and the eye pattern are uniquefor an individual. Better than the fingerprint recognition theiris doesn’t change with along years or other parameters as for the fingers. The retina scans, is done at a distance of a near-infrared spectral region. Products based on have beenavailable commercially since 1985. The technologydevelopment and evaluation methodology for face recognitionwas based on the FRVT2006, the FRGC and The irischallenge evaluation ICE program [47].One of the technologies used for this pattern based onneural networks and presenting a great performance is theVeriEye SDK by Neurotechnology.In this modal, we can distinguish two large contexts theretina and the iris. For the extraction of the pupil from the irismuch works can be listed [48] [49]. Therefore, the pioneer inthe iris recognition is J.DAUGMAN, his first publication was[50] using the Gabor wavelets. Which was improved after byseveral others as [51][52][53].It presents an excellentreliability, low reject rate but the hardware used is expensiveand needs some requirements on lighting [54]. To know moreabout how to identify a person from its iris pattern, werecommend you to read [55].• SPEECHIn 1962, Lawrence Kersta, an engineer of Bell Laboratories,establishes that the voice of each person is single and that it is possible to represent it graphically, the voice consists of  physiological and behavioral components. Actually, used bythe police, the espionage agencies, the immigration services,the hospitals and in telephony.Voice verification is a very attractive biometric approach because of its acceptability to users. The data used by thevoice recognition come at the same time from physiologicaland behavioral factors. But unfortunately they are in generallyimitable.We’ll not, detail more about the speech recognition wedirect the readers to BIOM. The technology is such as now;we can recognize a person from his mobile phone [56], andit’s very easy to implement it. [57]Some of its suppliers; IPI speech technologies, VeriVoice,Veritel, T-Netix, OTG, Nuance, Keyware, GraphcoTechnologies, Anovea and Voicevault.To more detail [58] [59][60] presents excellent solutions tomany of the critical problems of the speech identification biometric as: the variability due to the speaker (emotion,tiredness, stress), the variable conditions of recording(microphones, ambient noise [RIC06] using the toolkit ALZE[61]), the variable conditions of transmission (voice channel)and some new problems as for the GSM: coding, noiseevolving/moving in the time. A lot of features can be used, wecan distinguich whtihin them : the PAC (Phase AutoCorrelation) [62], SSC (Spectral Subband Centroid) [63] andthe LFCC (Linear Filter-bank Cepstral Coefficient)[64]. Moredetails on features speaker verification can be found in [65] .• HANDHand geometry is the granddaddy of biometrics by asset of a 20-year history of live applications. This type of biometricmeasurement is one of widespread, particularly in the UnitedStates. That consists in measuring several hand characteristics(the shape of the hand [66], length and width of the fingers,the shapes of the articulations, lengths inter-articulations, andveins). There have been six different hand-scanning products
42http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500

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