(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 9, No. 4, 2011
An introduction to Biometrics
Sarah BENZIANE,Institut of maintenance and industrial security,University of Oran, AlgeriaBenziane.firstname.lastname@example.org Abdelkader BENYETTOUDepartment of Computer Science, Faculty of Science,University of Science & Technology MohamedBoudiaf of Oran, Algeria
— Biometric recognition has been studied over10 years,the biometric use was only limited for the police application’sbefore .During this period, many different problems to therecognition were addressed; when looking to its potentialadvantages, this technology is now considered for a very greatnumber of other applications. This paper gives an overview of different research on biometrics
Keywords-component; biometrics; modalities; biometric system; databases
The biometrics word has a large meaning in the study of identification’s persons from a number of characteristics. Acomplex human inheritance, very rich in combinations, and perfectly adapted to such systems of user identification, and/or authentification  . It’s a Mathematical analysis of biological characteristics of a person to determine his identitydecisively. Biometrics based on the principle of somecharacteristics recognition’s. Fingerprints, face, iris, retina,hand, keystroke   and voice, provide irrefutable proof of the identity of a person they are unique biologicalcharacteristics distinguishing one person from another.Both identification and authentification differentiate thedefinition of the biometrics:• Identification: The confirmation of the identity of theindividual which is identity papers or automatic teller machines.• Authentication: Identification of an individual from aquantity of biometric recorded people. This type of biometricrecognition is especially used in the high fields with lownumber of users or ends of police investigationII.
From some studies, we learn that prehistoric man used hisfingerprint to sign in commercial exchanges in Babylone. Sowhy not us? In 1892, Argentine police identified for the firsttime, a criminal by his fingerprints. Moreover, we can say thatthe dady of the biometry is Bertillon with its sheets of anthropometric, the inventor of the scientific police. Historymay say that biometry is very old technique. Although, thefirst automatic fingerprint prototype came in the mid-1970s,and the first commercial products was marketed in the early1980s. These systems will be used as a first step for biometricaccess control and / or time management for clients such as"governmental organization" (eg prisons).III.
?It is pointed out that one of the problems to which we areconfronted is the fact that the security of our systems isn’tvery competent . However, for some applications we needto use password to ease to this security. According to  the biometry aim’s are based principally on two concepts: theconvenience and the security.Convenience associated to Passwords like code PINE, password PC, credit cards, identity cards, or then keys can beforgotten, lost, stolen and copied. In addition, today everyoneshould remember multiple passwords and have in their possession a large number of cards. A recent study showedthat on standard, an individual uses about 13 passwords in hiseveryday life. These passwords are sometimes difficult tomemorize and are rather often communicated to thirds. The biometry is able to mitigate this problem, and too facilitate theusage as that there will be no password to remember.In Security , the biometry would give us accurateidentification without identification papers that may becounterfeit. Also, it would improve the security of protecteddocuments in order to limit fraud. Adapted to the Internet , biometrics makes it possible to filter access to sites andintranets. Biometrics can be an ally of privacy to safeguard our identity and integrity of data. But taking into account certainaspects of the protection of this data as shown in .IV.
Biometric system’s design ensures high reliability andspeed of biometrical identification even when using largedatabases. Based on the principle that such intelligent machine“would tend to build up models from its own databasis withinitself and then attempts to identify/authentify each pattern presented”; Capture Identification/Authentification Access.Most of the systems have a common operating technique,which is:1. CaptureFrom a sensor system, we capture an image or other signals;which will be analyzed by software processing to identify allthe according biometrics characteristics (BC) and miniaturize