(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 9, No. 4, April 2011
Access Control Via Biometric Authentication System
Okumbor Anthony N.
Computer Centre, Delta State Polytechnic,Otefe-Oghara, Nigeriatonyokumbor@yahoo.com
S. C. Chiemeke (Ph.D)
Associate ProfessorComputer Science, University of BeninBenin City, Nigeria
Presently, the conventional systems such as possessionof an object like a key or identity card, or the knowledge of apassword or login used by the Delta State government of Nigeriato verify her personnel for access to the state scholarship schemeare prone to a lot of inadequacies, such as fraud and identitytheft. In other to overcome this problem, this research proposesan alternative solution in the area of Biometrics technology usingadvanced computer techniques as a widely adopted front-linesecurity. In this research, the concept and related literatures isreviewed. The method adopted in carrying out the research, isstudy of the existing system and evolutionary prototyping of thenew system. The developed solution is essentially a patternrecognition system that captures an individual data andfingerprint and uses the minutiae algorithm as a determinant forauthentication. The application is developed using the VisualBasic.Net framework for the front-end, fingerprint SDK as aco
mponent and MS SQL Server for the backend. ‘BioPersonnelAuthenticator’ provides positive identification; it is user friendly,
flexible and supports various device. On deployment of theapplication it serves as a data repository for the state and it isrecommended for adoption by other organs of government.
Authentication, Biometrics, Template and Reference
The emerging trend in organizations is the security of physical, financial, and information assets. Lapses in securitysuch as unauthorized personnel gaining access to governmentfacilities and schemes can have serious consequences thatextend beyond the organization. Organizations need to have anabsolute trust in the identity of their employees, customers,contractors, and partners; that they are who they claim to be.Personal identity refers to a set of attributes for examplename, employee number, etc. that are associated with a person.In the modern day society, there is an ever-growing need todetermine or verify the identity of a person. Identitymanagement can be said to be a process of creating /linking theattributes to a physical person. One of the critical tasks inidentity management is person authentication, where the goal isto either determine the previously established identity of anindividual or verify an individual's identity claim. This can beaccomplished by three methods . The two conventional
methods of authentication are based on a person‟s exclusive
possession of a token (e.g., ID card or key) or knowledge of asecret (e.g., password). The third method, called biometricrecognition, authenticates a person based on his biological andbehavioral (biometric) traits. In other words, biometrics refersto the automated recognition of individuals based on theirbiological and behavioral traits. Examples of biometric traitsinclude fingerprint, face, iris, palmprint, retina, hand geometry,voice, signature and gait.
A biometric system is essentially a pattern recognitionsystem that recognizes a person by determining the authenticityof a specific physiological and/or behavioral characteristicpossessed by that person. An important issue in designing apractical biometric system is to determine how an individual isrecognized. Depending on the application context, a biometricsystem may be called either a verification system or anidentification system:
a verification system authenticates a person‟s identity by
comparing the captured biometric characteristic with her ownbiometric template(s) pre-stored in the system. It conducts one-to-one comparison to determine whether the identity claimedby the individual is true. A verification system either rejects oraccepts the submitted claim of identity (Am I whom I claim Iam?);an identification system recognizes an individual bysearching the entire template database for a match. It conductsone-to-many comparisons to establish the identity of theindividual. In an identification system, the system establishes a
entity (or fails if the subject is not enrolled in thesystem database) without the subject having to claim anidentity (Who am I?).The term authentication is also frequently used in thebiometric field, sometimes as a synonym for verification;actually, in the information technology language,authenticating a user means to let the system know the useridentity regardless of the mode (verification or identification).However, identification of a person can be based on any of these physiological or behavioral characteristics. Today thereare many biometric devices based on characteristics that areunique for everyone. Some of these characteristics include, butare not limited to, fingerprints, hand geometry, and voice.These characteristics can be used to positively identifysomeone. Many biometric devices are based on the capture andmatching of biometric characteristics in order to produce apositive identification. By employing a biometric device orsystem of devices inside the government system, it will enableorganizations to tell exactly who is an employee of the state.