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A middleware platform for Pervasive Environment

A middleware platform for Pervasive Environment

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Published by ijcsis
The basic goal of pervasive computing is to develop technologies that allow smart devices to automatically adapt to changing environments and contexts, making the environment largely imperceptible to the user. One big barrier to the wide spread development of pervasive computing applications lies in the increased complexity of the programming task. There is a big gap between high-level application requirements, and low-level complex system organization and operations. Middleware can help bridge the gap – supporting rapid development and deployment of applications by domain experts with minimal programming expertise. However, pervasive computing poses new challenges to middleware research. Publish/Subscribe (pub/sub) middleware has many advantages when implementing systems for spontaneous, ad-hoc, pervasive applications. This paper describes REBECA architecture and the REBECA notification service. To efficiently support mobility, it is necessary to adequately deal with the uncertainty introduced by client movement. This paper sketches how this is done in the existing pub/sub middleware with REBECA and shows how to increase the efficiency of logical mobility by adapting the implementation of physical mobility.
The basic goal of pervasive computing is to develop technologies that allow smart devices to automatically adapt to changing environments and contexts, making the environment largely imperceptible to the user. One big barrier to the wide spread development of pervasive computing applications lies in the increased complexity of the programming task. There is a big gap between high-level application requirements, and low-level complex system organization and operations. Middleware can help bridge the gap – supporting rapid development and deployment of applications by domain experts with minimal programming expertise. However, pervasive computing poses new challenges to middleware research. Publish/Subscribe (pub/sub) middleware has many advantages when implementing systems for spontaneous, ad-hoc, pervasive applications. This paper describes REBECA architecture and the REBECA notification service. To efficiently support mobility, it is necessary to adequately deal with the uncertainty introduced by client movement. This paper sketches how this is done in the existing pub/sub middleware with REBECA and shows how to increase the efficiency of logical mobility by adapting the implementation of physical mobility.

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(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 9, No. 4, April 2011
A Middleware Platform For Pervasive Environment
Vasanthi.R
Research Scholar ,Computer Science and EngineeringAnna University of Technology, CoimbatoreTamilnadu , Indiavasanti_me@yahoo.co.in
Dr. R.S.D. Wahidabanu
Research Supervisor,Anna University of Technology, CoimbatoreTamilnadu , India
 Abstract 
The basic goal of pervasive computing is to developtechnologies that allow smart devices to automatically adapt tochanging environments and contexts, making the environmentlargely imperceptible to the user. One big barrier to the widespread development of pervasive computing applications lies inthe increased complexity of the programming task. There is a biggap between high-level application requirements, and low-levelcomplex system organization and operations. Middleware canhelp bridge the gap –supporting rapid development anddeployment of applications by domain experts with minimalprogramming expertise. However, pervasive computing posesnew challenges to middleware research. Publish/Subscribe(pub/sub) middleware has many advantages when implementingsystems for spontaneous, ad-hoc, pervasive applications. Thispaper describes REBECA architecture and the REBECAnotification service. To efficiently support mobility, it is necessaryto adequately deal with the uncertainty introduced by clientmovement. This paper sketches how this is done in the existingpub/sub middleware with REBECA and shows how to increasethe efficiency of logical mobility by adapting the implementationof physical mobility
 Keywords-Middleware;ubiquitous interfaces;publish/ subscribe; REBECA
I.INTRODUCTIONPervasive computing [1]-[2] is “omni-computing”. It is “all-pervasive” by combining open standards-based applicationswith everyday activities.computing is a rapidly developingarea of Information and Communications Technology (ICT).The term refers to the increasing integration of ICT intopeople’s lives and environments, made possible by the growingavailability of microprocessors with inbuiltcommunicationsfacilities. Pervasive computing has many potential applications,from health and home care to environmental monitoring andintelligent transport systems.Pervasive computing systems(PCS) and services may lead to a greater degree of userknowledge of, or control over, the surrounding environment,whether at home, or in an office or car. They may also show aform of ‘intelligence’.Mark Weiser has been named as the father of ubiquitouscomputing (Ubicomp) and has presented his vision[3]inthefollowing way: “Ubiquitous computing has as its goal theenhancingcomputer use by making many computers availablethroughout the physical environment, but making themeffectively invisible to the user.” In his another paper [1]Weiser predicts that there will be quite commonly hundreds of computers in one a room but by then they are so small andcommonplace that they are virtually invisible to users.Pervasive computing is the third wave of computingtechnologies to emerge since computers firstappeared:First Wave -Mainframe computing era: one computershared by many people, via workstations.• Second Wave -Personal computing era: one computer usedby one person, requiring a consciousinteraction. Users largely bound to desktop.Third Wave -Pervasive (initially called ubiquitous)computing era: one person, many computers.Millions of computers embedded in theenvironment
 A.What Is Middleware?
Any piece of software that glues together various otherpieces of software can be labeled as middleware[5]-[6].Thetwo most common functions handled by middleware solutionsare messaging and data access services. A typical usagescenario is one where a graphical user interface (GUI)component needs to access a remote database. Usually theGUI part has to be independent of the actual databaseimplementation and a middleware component or a set of middleware components provide that functionality to the GUI.Thus middleware provides a service layer in the softwarearchitecture that separate the detailsof implementation fromusers of middleware in Fig.1. The typical users of middlewareare application developers who build new applications to bedeployed in the target environment.Other typical middleware services include message passing,transaction monitoring, directory lookup and objectbrokerageor other distributed computing environment services.Many of the middleware solutions in usetoday are application-specificor optimized for a set of applicationsbut naturallythere arealso genericmiddleware solutions[4]. Examplesof currentgeneric-purpose middlewaresolutions areCORBA(CommonObject Request Broker Architecture), DCOM(DistributedCommon ObjectModel), J2EE(Java 2 Enterprise Edition),J2ME (Java 2 Micro Edition) and WAE(Wireless ApplicationEnvironment).Of these only J2ME and WAE are intended tobe used on mobile devices. The remaining three are stillsuitable forserver-side computing but they don’t adapt well to
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(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 9, No. 4, April 2011
Figure 1
morechallenging requirements of pervasivecomputing likeautomatic reconfiguration and service discovery or context-awareness on the device.
 B.Pervasive computing technologies
Pervasive computing involves three converging areas of ICT[3]:computing(‘devices’),communications(‘connectivity’)and ‘user interfaces’.
1)Devices
PCS devices are likely to assume many different forms andsizes,from handheld units (similar to mobile phones) to near-invisible devices set into ‘everyday’ objects (like furniture andclothing). These will all be able tocommunicate with eachother and act ‘intelligently’.Such devices can be separated into three categories:sensor :input devices that detect environmental changesuser behaviors, human commands etc;• processor:electronic systems that interpret and analyzeinput-data;actuator :output devices that respond to processedinformation by altering the environment viaelectronic or mechanical means.For example, air temperature control is often done withactuators. However the term can also refer to devices whichdeliver information, rather than altering the environmentphysically. There are many visions for the futuredevelopment of PCS devices. The idea is that each one wouldfunctionindependently, with its own power supply, andcould also communicate wirelessly with the others.
2)Connectivity
Pervasive computing systems will rely on the interlinkingof independent electronic devices into broader networks.This can be achieved via both wired (such as Broadband(ADSL) or Ethernet) and wireless networking technologies(such as Wi-Fi or Bluetooth), with the devices themselvesbeing capable of assessing the most effective form of connectivity in any given scenario. The effectivedevelopmentof pervasive computing systems depends on their degree of interoperability, as well as on the convergence of standards forwired and wireless technologies.
3)User interfaces
User interfaces represent the point of contact betweenICTand human users. For example with a personalcomputer, themouse and keyboard are used to
input 
information, while themonitor usually provides the
output.
With PCS, new userinterfaces are beingdeveloped thatwill be capable of sensingand supplying more information about users, and the broaderenvironment, to the computer for processing. With future userinterfaces the input might be visual information –for examplerecognizing a person’s face, or responding to gestures. Itmight also be based on sound, scent or touch recognition, orother sensory information like temperature. The output mightalso be in any of these formats. The technology could ‘know’the user (forexample through expressed preferences, attitudes,behaviors) and tailor the physical environment to meetspecific needs and demands.
C.Networks of Pervasive Computing
Pervasive computing devices can be connected to eachother using three types of networks.Wireless Wide AreaNetworks use typically digital cellular radio technologies fromthe end user devices to base stations. Short-range Wirelesstechnologies can be used typically indoors since the range isusually just a few tens of meters. The third type of networkscan be found at residential and office environments where theyconnect controls and appliances.
 D.Classification Of The Ubiquitous Middleware
Several ubiquitous middleware architectures andinfrastructures have been introduced in theacademic andindustrial world. The current middleware treat ubiquity fromslightlydifferentperspectives. We distinguish variousmiddleware technologies[6],[8]ranging from partiallyintegratedmiddleware to fully-integrated middleware.Wemeanby fully-integrated middleware, middleware providingkey elements for all applications requirements suchas discovery, adaptation/composition,contextmanagement,and managementof ubiquitous applications.In this category we cite ubiquitous middlewaresystems such asAura,Gaia,Oxygen,Pcom, andOne.world.Partially-integrated middleware range from platforms thatwere speciallyrealized to handle one or two ubiquitousrequirements, such as the application discovery inJini andUPnP, to platforms that are being extended toubiquity for theapplication management such as OSGi and .NetFramework .We survey the current state-of-the-art architectures from theviewpoint of the core requirements identified above. In thissurvey, we will highlight the most known and used fully andpartially-integrated middleware. We will not deal with theplatforms that are being extended to ubiquity as these
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(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 9, No. 4, April 2011
extensions are still in a preliminary state. Later on, aclassification will focus on the strength and weakness of eachof the ubiquitous middleware, based on the identifiedrequirements.
1)Aura
Aura[9]provides user with an invisible halo of computingand information services that persists regardless of location. Apersonal Aura acts as a proxy for the mobile user it represents.Auraaim is to allow users to execute their tasks regardlesstheir location. It allows users to dynamically realize dailytasks modeledas abstract software applications, in atransparent way, without manually dealing with theconfiguration and reconfiguration issues of these applications.Aura deals more with adaptation, replacement of services, thedynamic configuration and reconfiguration of user tasks.Project Aura provides several pervasive applications adaptedto both homes and offices.
2)Gaia
Gaia[10]is a services-based middleware that integratesresources of variousdevices. It manages several functionssuch as forming and maintaining device collections,sharing resources among devicesand enables seamless serviceinteractions. It also providesan application framework todevelop applications for the device collection. The applicationframework decomposes the application into smallercomponents that can run on differentdevices in this collection.The notion of ad-hoc pervasive computing in Gaia is a clusterofpersonal devices that can communicate and share resourcesamong each other. The cluster isreferred to as a personalactive space. The user can program this cluster through acommoninterface. Mobile Gaia role is to provide services thatdiscover devices that form the personalspace, maintain thecomposition of the cluster, share resources among devices inthe clusterand facilitate communication. Similarly to Aura,Gaia focuses onthe dynamic aspect ofubiquitousenvironments and provides the support for dynamicallymapping applications toavailable resources of a specificactive space.
3)Oxygen
Oxygen[11]vision is to bring an abundance ocomputation and communicationwithin easy reach of humansthrough natural perceptual interfaces of speech and vision.Computation blends into peoples' lives enabling them to easilydo tasks they want to do, collaborate, access knowledge,automate routine tasks and their environment. In otherwords, it enables a pervasive, human centric computing. Theapproach focuses on four technological areas: embeddedcomputational devices, handheld devices, networks, and alsoon adaptive software. Perception is a central issue, howeverthe focus is mainly on vision and speechaiming to replaceexplicit traditional input mechanisms with conversational andgesture input.
4)One.world 
One.world[12]is a system architecture for ubiquitouscomputing.It provides anintegrated, comprehensiveframework for building pervasive applications. The One.worldarchitecture builds on four foundation services. First, a virtualmachine provides a uniformexecution environment across alldevices and supports the ad hoc composition betweenapplications and devices. Second, tuples define a commontype system for all applications andsimplify the sharing of data. Third, events are used for all communications and makechangeexplicit to applications. Applications are composedfrom components that exchange eventsthrough imported andexported event handlers. Events make change explicit toapplications,with the goal that applications adapt to changeinstead of forcing users to manuallyreconfigure their devicesand applications. Finally, environments host applications,storepersistent data, andthrough nestingfacilitate thecomposition of applications and services.
5)Pcom
Pcom[13], a Component system for ubiquitous computingis a light-weightcomponent system that offers applicationprogrammers a high-level programming abstractionwhichcaptures the dependencies between components usingcontracts. Pcom allows thespecification of distributedapplications that are made up of components with explicitdependencies modeled using contracts. Pcom relies on acommunication middleware,
6)Base
Base is a flexible middleware for Pervasive computingenvironments. It provides adaptationsupport on thecommunication level by dynamically selecting or reselectingcommunicationprotocol stacks, even for currently runninginteraction. Base is written in Java using the Java 2MicroEdition with the Connected Limited Device Configuration. Itassists applicationprogrammers by providing mechanisms fordevice discovery and service registration that canbe used tolocate and access local as well as remote device capabilitiesand services. It alsoprovides a simple signaling mechanism todetermine the availability of these devices andservices.
7)Jini
Jini [14]is a Java-based architecture for spontaneousnetworking. Participants ina Jini community require nopreviously knowledge of each other, and can take fulladvantagesof the dynamic class loading and type-checking of the Java language, which requires a Javavirtual machine(JVM) for all participants. A Jini community is establishedaround one ormore LookupServices, which organize theservices deployed in the community and respond torequestsfrom clients. The Lookup service is itself a Jini service, actingasa bootstrappingservice. References to these Lookupservices are obtained either by unicast or multicastdiscoveryprotocols defined by Jini. The main idea of Jini for supporting“spontaneousnetworking” is achieved by a leasing principle,which means that services are leased into thecommunity.
66http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500

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