(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 9, No. 4, April 2011
morechallenging requirements of pervasivecomputing likeautomatic reconfiguration and service discovery or context-awareness on the device.
B.Pervasive computing technologies
Pervasive computing involves three converging areas of ICT:computing(‘devices’),communications(‘connectivity’)and ‘user interfaces’.
PCS devices are likely to assume many different forms andsizes,from handheld units (similar to mobile phones) to near-invisible devices set into ‘everyday’ objects (like furniture andclothing). These will all be able tocommunicate with eachother and act ‘intelligently’.Such devices can be separated into three categories:• sensor :input devices that detect environmental changesuser behaviors, human commands etc;• processor:electronic systems that interpret and analyzeinput-data;• actuator :output devices that respond to processedinformation by altering the environment viaelectronic or mechanical means.For example, air temperature control is often done withactuators. However the term can also refer to devices whichdeliver information, rather than altering the environmentphysically. There are many visions for the futuredevelopment of PCS devices. The idea is that each one wouldfunctionindependently, with its own power supply, andcould also communicate wirelessly with the others.
Pervasive computing systems will rely on the interlinkingof independent electronic devices into broader networks.This can be achieved via both wired (such as Broadband(ADSL) or Ethernet) and wireless networking technologies(such as Wi-Fi or Bluetooth), with the devices themselvesbeing capable of assessing the most effective form of connectivity in any given scenario. The effectivedevelopmentof pervasive computing systems depends on their degree of interoperability, as well as on the convergence of standards forwired and wireless technologies.
User interfaces represent the point of contact betweenICTand human users. For example with a personalcomputer, themouse and keyboard are used to
information, while themonitor usually provides the
With PCS, new userinterfaces are beingdeveloped thatwill be capable of sensingand supplying more information about users, and the broaderenvironment, to the computer for processing. With future userinterfaces the input might be visual information –for examplerecognizing a person’s face, or responding to gestures. Itmight also be based on sound, scent or touch recognition, orother sensory information like temperature. The output mightalso be in any of these formats. The technology could ‘know’the user (forexample through expressed preferences, attitudes,behaviors) and tailor the physical environment to meetspecific needs and demands.
C.Networks of Pervasive Computing
Pervasive computing devices can be connected to eachother using three types of networks.Wireless Wide AreaNetworks use typically digital cellular radio technologies fromthe end user devices to base stations. Short-range Wirelesstechnologies can be used typically indoors since the range isusually just a few tens of meters. The third type of networkscan be found at residential and office environments where theyconnect controls and appliances.
D.Classification Of The Ubiquitous Middleware
Several ubiquitous middleware architectures andinfrastructures have been introduced in theacademic andindustrial world. The current middleware treat ubiquity fromslightlydifferentperspectives. We distinguish variousmiddleware technologies,ranging from partiallyintegratedmiddleware to fully-integrated middleware.Wemeanby fully-integrated middleware, middleware providingkey elements for all applications requirements suchas discovery, adaptation/composition,contextmanagement,and managementof ubiquitous applications.In this category we cite ubiquitous middlewaresystems such asAura,Gaia,Oxygen,Pcom, andOne.world.Partially-integrated middleware range from platforms thatwere speciallyrealized to handle one or two ubiquitousrequirements, such as the application discovery inJini andUPnP, to platforms that are being extended toubiquity for theapplication management such as OSGi and .NetFramework .We survey the current state-of-the-art architectures from theviewpoint of the core requirements identified above. In thissurvey, we will highlight the most known and used fully andpartially-integrated middleware. We will not deal with theplatforms that are being extended to ubiquity as these