(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 9, No. 4, April 2011
Internet Adoption in Indonesian Education
Are Female Teachers Able to Use and Anxious of Internet?
, Sri Wulan Windu Ratih
, Betty Yudha Sulistiowati
, Budi Hermana
Faculty of Computer Science and Information Technology,
Faculty of Economics, Gunadarma UniversityJl. Margonda Raya No.100, Depok City, West Java, Indonesia
— This research aims to determine the patterns of internet usage behavior and perceptions of the internet amongfemale teachers in elementary schools, in terms of InternetAnxiety and Internet Self-Efficacy. The level of adoption ismeasured by two groups of measurement they are the internetadopter and non-adopters, and also adopters, potential adopters,and non-adopters. The object of research was taken by samplingfrom 264 female teachers who teach in Jakarta and outsideJakarta. The result shows that Internet adopter groups tend toshow higher perceptions of the Internet usefulness, the practicaluse, technical understanding, and social influence, while groupsof potential adopters and non-adopters tend to exhibit a highlevel of anxiety about the internet. The level of adoption onInternet usage can be predicted by using the Internet anxiety andInternet self-efficacy with prediction rate of 58.8 percent forthree-level scale adoption of Internet adopters, potentialadopters, and non-adopters, and 71.9 percent for two-scale of theInternet adopter and non-adopters. Teachers who teach inprivate schools show higher level of internet adoption than thosein public schools. Another result from the research is the femaleteachers working outside Jakarta are more anxious of internetusage than those who work in Jakarta.
Internet Anxiety, Internet Self-Efficacy, Digital Divide,Gender Issues
Information and communication technologies could give amajor boost to the economic, political and socialempowerment of women, and the promotion of gender equality . The formation of gender stereotypes in activitiesassociated with ICTs is a complex process, and of gendered patterns of use is influenced by many factors and welldocumented in education in the West. It is worrying to seethese patterns being produced in societies in which ICTs are arecent introduction . Many developing nations have failedto incorporate a resource in great abundance, their women, touse these new technologies to greatest advantage . 1995Beijing Declaration stated that ensure women's equal access toeconomic resources, including land, credit, science andtechnology, vocational training, information, communicationand markets, as a means to further the advancement andempowerment of women and girls, including through theenhancement of their capacities to enjoy the benefits of equalaccess to these resources, inter alia, by means of internationalcooperation .The rate of Internet adoption has grown for both genders between the years 1991- 2001, although the rate of women’sadoption is lower than that of men. The adoption’s rate of theInternet for women in the year 2001 was around 40% whilemen’s percentage of Internet adoption was around 55% .According to , The WWW is the fastest- growing segmentof the Internet, growing at rate of 3,000 per cent every year. Itallows exchange of multimedia data (text, audio, video,graphics and animation) between users connected to theInternet using hypertext links. The Internet Society expects120 million hosts to be connected to the Internet by the end of the decade, up from 9.5 million in 1996. And the informationrevolution offers both opportunities and challenges to women.Indonesia is one country in Asia that has the level of ICT penetration that is still relatively low compared to the averageof Asia and the World. However, in 2010 Indonesia hasestablished a significant increase for the indicator NetworkedReadiness Index (RDI) based on the Global InformationTechnology Report 2009-2010 published by the WorldEconomic Forum . Reference  stated that Indonesiaranks 67th, significantly improving from last year. Asia’sthird-largest economy delivers a mixed performance, withrankings in the different pillars ranging from a 23rd place inindividual readiness to a mediocre 100th position in theinfrastructure environment. Indonesia showed a high value onReadiness Index and ranks in 43
of 133 countries, but for Individual readiness sub index, Indonesia ranked better andranks in 23
. The problem is Indonesia still faces obstacles toinfrastructure environment that is only rank in 100
. In theAsia-Pacific region, Accessing information from the Web isinfrequent, as is advocacy via the Internet. The reasons for notoptimizing the ICT tools include technical problemsassociated with file transmission, connections anddisconnections due to poor infrastructure, high usage costs and budgetary constraints, lack of awareness of potential uses and benefits, and inadequate skills to exploit the possibilities .There are still some formidable barriers to overcome inincreasing women’s use of the Internet and ensuring that they participate fully in the Information Society . Ministry of
This research funded by Ministry of National Education of Indonesia