(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 9, No. 4, April 2011
Sending a message from a source to asingle destination.
- Sending a message from a source to a setof destinations.
- Flooding of messages from a source toall other nodes in the specified network.
Sending a message from a source to allnodes inside a geographical region.V.
ATTACKS IN MANETSecuring wireless ad-hoc networks is a highly challengingissue. Understanding possible form of attacks is always thefirst step towards developing good security solutions.Security of communication in MANET is important forsecure transmission of information . Absence of anycentral co-ordination mechanism and shared wirelessmedium makes MANET more vulnerable to digital/cyberattacks than wired network there are a number of attacksthat affect MANET. These attacks can be classified into twotypes:
1. Exterior Attack:
External attacks are carried out by nodesthat do not belong to the network. It causes congestionsends false routing information or causes unavailability of services.
2. Interior Attack:
Internal attacks are from compromisednodes that are part of the network. In an internal attack themalicious node from the network gains unauthorized accessand impersonates as a genuine node. It can analyze trafficbetween other nodes and may participate in other network activities.A.
Denial of Service attack:
This attack aims to attack theavailability of a node or the entire network. If the attack is successful the services will not be available. Theattacker generally uses radio signal jamming and thebattery exhaustion method.B.
If the authentication mechanism is notproperly implemented a malicious node can act as agenuine node and monitor the network traffic. It canalso send fake routing packets, and gain access to someconfidential information.C.
This is a passive attack. The nodesimply observes the confidential information. Thisinformation can be later used by the malicious node.The secret information like location, public key, privatekey, password etc. can be fetched by eavesdropper.D.
The malicious node make routingservices a target because it’s an important service inMANETs. There are two flavors to this routing attack.One is attack on routing protocol and another is attack on packet forwarding or delivery mechanism. The firstis aimed at blocking the propagation of routinginformation to a node. The latter is aimed at disturbingthe packet delivery against a predefined path.E.
Black hole Attack:
In this attack, an attacker advertisesa zero metric for all destinations causing all nodesaround it to route packets towards it. A malicious nodesends fake routing information, claiming that it has anoptimum route and causes other good nodes to routedata packets through the malicious one. A maliciousnode drops all packets that it receives instead of normally forwarding those packets. An attacker listenthe requests in a flooding based protocol.F.
In a wormhole attack, an attackerreceives packets at one point in the network, “tunnels”them to another point in the network, and then replaysthem into the network from that point. Routing can bedisrupted when routing control message are tunneled.This tunnel between two colluding attacks is known asa wormhole.G.
An attacker that performs a replay attack are retransmitted the valid data repeatedly to inject thenetwork routing traffic that has been capturedpreviously. This attack usually targets the freshness of routes, but can also be used to undermine poorlydesigned security solutions.H.
In jamming, attacker initially keepmonitoring wireless medium in order to determinefrequency at which destination node is receiving signalfrom sender. It then transmit signal on that frequency sothat error free receptor is hindered.I.
Man- in- the- middle attack:
An attacker sites betweenthe sender and receiver and sniffs any informationbeing sent between two nodes. In some cases, attackermay impersonate the sender to communicate withreceiver or impersonate the receiver to reply to thesender.J.
This attack is also known as routingmisbehaviour attack which leads to dropping of messages. Gray-hole attack has two phases. In the firstphase the node advertise itself as having a valid route todestination while in second phase, nodes dropsintercepted packets with a certain probability.VI.
MANET APPLICATIONSWith the increase of portable devices as well as progress inwireless communication, ad-hoc networking is gainingimportance with the increasing number of widespreadapplications. Ad-hoc networking can be applied anywhere